Once they have mastered the five aspects of language they will need to acquire the linguistic knowledge in oral and written forms. The child must have a good grasp of the oral language prior to writing. Oral language are related to literacy development which are the following examples, Vocabulary, Syntactic production, Comprehension, Phonological awareness, and narrative production awareness Phonological : the child has the ability to spell the words correctly while writing. They also have the understanding of the letter sounds. Semantics: the child has an understanding of written and reading vocabulary.
Oral Language is when the language is spoken to express ideas, thoughts and even emotion. Before a child learns to read, the child begins to speak and connect through saying the words aloud. With that in mind, a child can identify and connect the words on the page to the picture that appears through their mind base on the concept of oral language. Oral language goes beyond the classroom walls because it starts from the words, saying and ideas that they’ve personally heard and experienced through their life. Therefore, many educators test their students on their Oral Language abilities, and Oral Language is comprised of Phonology, Semantics, Grammar, Morphology, Pragmatics, and Discourse.
The ability in communication is the ability of discourse, namely the ability to understand and produce spoken and written text that realized in the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The fourth skill is used to create and respond a discourse in society. Therefore, English subject is directed to develop those skills that learners are able to communicate and make discourse in English at a certain level of literacy. Wells (1987) stated that there are four level of literacy. They are performative, functional, informational, and epistemic.
Thus the important thing in speaking skill for students is in order to make them speak forthrightly and confidently with their classmates through rehearsing their English conversation frequently. thus that they are not clumsy to practiced gradually. When students tend assume want to successfulness of mastering foreign language is by communicating the language, in other words by speaking it out. Litlewood (2009) speaking ability is the first implementation of foreign language learning students of language learning supposed that to be able of communicating the language. Those students of foreign language learning should be able to implement the knowledge of language into its real performance.
Besides satisfying the requirements for a job, communication skills will also serve students in their interviews and presentations. For example, when a graduate student wants to find a job, s/he will apply in several openings and some of those companies may call him/her for an interview. If that student is able to articulate well and be more convincing, that student will have a better chance of getting hired. As a result, we can understand that communication skills are essential and valuable in finding and maintaining a job. Thus, universities should focus on preparing their students and help them improve their communication skills.
This involves understanding a speaker's accent or pronunciation, his grammar and his vocabulary, and grasping his meaning. An effective listener is capable of doing these four things, but a beginner finds it very difficult as he/ she can have no control over the structural and lexical range of the speaker to whom he/she is listening. Nevertheless, any listener can learn to focus on significant content items if he/she learns to listen selectively. In listening
Learners can improve all four skills by training and participation. Using a language in a communicative way is not considered as single skill. Receptive skills are listening and reading and productive skills are speaking and writing. Teachers cannot teach all four skills
Introduction: The acquisition of language is different from language learning which is used with reference to a second language which a person learns purposefully; particularly in formal settings like school etc. The researchers like Littlefair (1991), Dockrell and Messer (1988), and Widdowson, (1978) found a demarcation line between language acquisition and language learning and used the expression of first language acquisition in contrast with second language learning, but many researchers and theorists don’t distinguish between the two. Farzan(2000) for instance, treated language acquisition as a purely stylistic alternate to language learning. The four main skills of the English language are reading, listening, speaking, and writing. A person needs a mastery of various elements to use the language to reflect thoughts, desires, intentions , feeling and information in a written form (Pamela, 1991).The four basic English language skills are divided into two categories such as receptive skills and productive skills.
Saricoban added that students can improve their listening skills - and gain valuable language input - through a combination of extensive and intensive listening material and procedures. Listening of both kinds is especially important since it provides the perfect opportunity to hear voices other than the teacher's, enables students to acquire good speaking habits as a result of the spoken English they absorb and helps to improve their pronunciation. Rivers (1978) says that “listening is a creative skill which means people comprehend the sound falling on their ears, and take the raw material of words, arrangements of words, and the rise and fall the voice, and from this material they create significance”. He also states that listening skill is listening with comprehension, attention and appreciation. Then, listening activity needs to integrate skills of language, such as pronunciation, vocabulary mastery, writing, speaking, and reading.
The teaching and learning English language involves four main skills i.e. listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The goal of learning or teaching English language is to empower the students to utilize English for communication. In the previous decade, there was a shift in the focus of language teaching from linguistic competence to communicative competence; since then it was agreed by second language acquisition researchers and English language teachers that learning a foreign language is not just about learning the syntax i.e. grammar and the vocabulary and a set of idioms and expressions but speaking skill is also important.