Subcellular Organelles Essay

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A) Explain in detail the subcellular organelles are functioning effectively?
Cells are basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. They are either multicellular or unicellular. Arise from pre-existing cells. Cell function as tiny specific factor with individual part that work together. Then what makes is present inside the cell that makes the cell alive and in turn, keeping the organism going? It is definitely the organelles!
What are organelles?
Organelles are membrane-bound, specialized subunits within a cell that have a specific function. Organelles are "little organs" in cells.
The following are the major functions of organelles:
1- Protection/support
2- Barrier between cell and its environment
3- Building and repairing of cell parts
4- Transport of materials
5- Storage and release of energy
6- Disposal of waste
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Digestion of materials by endocytosis: Lysosomes may fuse with vesicles or vacuoles formed by endocytosis and release their enzymes into it for digestion. The material for digestion may be food (protozoa) or a foreign body like parasite (defense purpose) .The products of digestion are absorbed and assimilated leaving undigested which are released outside through exocytosis (vacuole migrates and attach with cell membrane and release its contents).
2. Autophagy: process by which unwanted structures within the cell are engulfed and digested within lysosomes .they first enclose by single membrane ,usually derived from smooth ER and structure then fuses with a lysosomes to form an “autophagic vacuole”, In which the unwanted material are digested. This is part of the normal turnover of cytoplasm organelles replacing older with new ones.
3. Exocytosis: The enzymes are released from the cell. This occurs during replacement of cartilage by bone during development. Similarly the bone may be broken down during remodeling of bone that can occur in the response to injury, new stress and so

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