We were given that a good solvent for recrystalizing trimyristin was acetone. Acetone was heated on a steam bath and added to the crude trimyristin to completely dissolve it. The solution was immediately cooled so that the trimyristin crystals formed in a mother liquor of impurities. The crystals vacuum filtered through a Büchner funnel and rinsed with ice cold acetone so only the impurities dissolved and pure crystals were left in the funnel. To finish, we dried the pure trimyristin crystals using a high vacuum pump, and 0.1470g remained with a 3.674% recovery from nutmeg, and a 15.186% recovery from crude
However, this method has been modiﬁed suitably under controlled conditionsand has become an industrial tool for partial separation of fatty acids. Temperature-controlled crystallization has been used inthe industry to separate the oleic acid rich fraction from amixture of oleic and linoleic acids. The main disadvantage of this process is poor separation, as the separation is only based on the solidiﬁcation point, resulting in the contamination of each fraction of the acids with high levels of other acid
Moreover, it acts as dehydrating agent, forcing the equilibrium to the products and lead to a greater yield of ester. After the addition of trace amount of concentrated sulfuric acid, the reactant flask is heated so that the reaction can be speeded up and ester can be obtained faster. The reason of adding concentrated drops-by-drops into the reactant flask and swirl the flask while adding the acid is to prevent any part of the mixture getting too hot and reacting to form unwanted darkly coloured by-product. Before the heating of the liquid, boiling chips is added inside the reactant flask to allow a nucleation site for gradual boiling and avoid a sudden boiling surge where may cause the liquids inside the reactant flask to overflow or spill out as it has
Mixing sugar and sulfuric acid creates a chemical reaction. The properties of sugar include small grainy white particles, while the sulfuric acid is clear and has a low viscosity. When you first introduce sugar to sulfuric acid, the acid dehydrates the sugar. Which causes an exothermic reaction. With this reaction, there is smoke, fumes, and heat that is released.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
Week 1 a simple condensation reaction between benzaldeyde and hydroxylamine produced the product benzaldehyde oxime that was found to be in oil. The percentage yield of the experiment is 64%. The 36% loss can be due to the solution needing to be neutralised with glacial acid, there was no way to tell if the reaction was neutralised, to help increase yield the use of pH indictor paper to indicate whether the reaction was neutralised. As by using a rotary evaporator to remove the organic solvent may have caused small amounts of the product to evaporate off as it a low melting point solid, if the water bath temperature was too high would have caused to melt and evaporate off. As melting point was not measured was unable to tell whether the product is pure.
This is due to the boiling points of the two compounds are too close for an effective simple distillation. A simple distillation only works when the boiling points of the two compounds are separated by at least 50 °C (CITATION). Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). As well, while fractional distillation is more difficult due to the added fractionating column and insulation, it allows for better separation and condensation of the individual compounds.
so that means that the longer chain will have a slow reaction. It does not have a color and it does not cause fires to happen. It may burn the skin because it is a corrosive substance which is why you should wear gloves when you are handling it. If you swallow the hydrogen chloride then it can be dangerous because it is a toxic substance The bonding in hydrogen chloride is called covalent bonding because nonmetals and metals have the capability to react
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about metal hydride reduction reactions. Therefore, the sodium borohydride reduction of the ketone, 9-fluorenone was performed to yield the secondary alcohol, 9-fluorenol. Reduction of an organic molecule usually corresponds to decreasing its oxygen content or increasing its hydrogen content. In order to achieve such a chemical change, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used as a reducing agent. There are other metal hydrides used in the reduction of carbonyl groups such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).
Experimental Clay-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol Cyclohexanol (10.0336 g, mmol) was added to a 50 mL round bottom flask containing five boiling chips, Montmorillonite K10 clay (1.0430 g) was then added to the cyclohexanol and the mixture was swirled together. The flask was then placed in a sand bath and attached to a simple distillation apparatus. The contents of the flask were then heated at approximately 150 °C to begin refluxing the cyclohexanol. The distillation flask was then loosely covered with aluminum foil and the hood sash was lowered in order to minimize airflow. As the reaction continued, the temperature was adjusted in order to maintain a consistent rate of distillation.
Identification of Unknown Solutions and Ammonium Salts preAice Chemistry Lab Report Descriptions of unknown solutions: Unknown Descriptions A Clear, colorless, odorless liquid. B Clear, colorless, odorless liquid. C Clear, red-brown, odorless liquid D Clear, yellow-orange, odorless liquid.