TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
This aqueous solution was then heated until all the dichloromethane evaporated off. An error could have occurred at this point in the experiment if the hot plate was too hot. If the hot plate was set above the boiling point of the ketone, the ketone could have evaporated of along with the dichloromethane. This would result in a lower percent yield of the ketone. To prevent this from happening, the hot plate should not exceed 130˚C, so no matter what ketone was isolated, it would not evaporated off.
In the lab, “Properties of Hydrates,” the purpose was to compare the properties of several well observable hydrates and to determine if dehydration is a reversible or irreversible change. The lab consisted of attaining a pea-size sample of each compound, burning it over a bunsen burner, and comparing the starting mass and the mass lost after the combustion. These results are important to be able to identify a variety of different chemicals that contain water molecules as part of their crystalline structure. Some can be removed by heating (resulting in evaporation) and some remain mostly unchanged. In this lab the answer will be found.
In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
As the experiment went on, and as the blue copper chloride was turning clear, the reaction of the aluminum foil was slowing. The lighter the copper chloride got, the slower the red stuff was being produced. The purpose of this experiment was to determine what that red stuff was, aluminum or copper. The red stuff that was produced eventually dried out overnight and when I came back next class, it was completely dry. When it is dry, it is really fragile, it breaks to the touch and it stains anything it breaks apart on.
One error that could have affected the percent yield is not filtering out all of the liquid from the filter paper in the funnel before setting it off to dry. This would have increased the final mass of the solid, not making it accurate. To stop this from happening again, the liquid could be drained more thoroughly until it fully stops dripping into the Erlenmeyer flask. Another error that could have affected the percent yield is the amount of trials performed. This would have made the results less accurate and made any errors change the final results even more.
The nucleophile in this particular SN2 reaction was iodine and, as stated before, the leaving groups for 1-bromobutane and 1-chlorobutane are bromine and chlorine respectively. Bromine is a better leaving group than chlorine however, so the fact that 1-bromobutane reacted before 1-chlorobutane corresponds directly with what would be expected. As stated before, primary is more reactive than secondary and even more reactive that tertiary. This explains why no reaction/change was seen for 2-chlorobutane, 2-bromobutane, and tert-butyl-chloride. 2-bromobutane would have been expected to react next, due to bromine being a better leaving group than chlorine, then 2-chlorobutane.
Concepts learned include molar ratio calculation, and ester constituents (carboxylate acid and alcohol). In addition, the use of a cold finger condenser and its purpose in ester reactions was discovered. The effects of drierite on reactions and its ability to absorb water was also studied. Concepts of stoichiometry were reviewed from previous classes, and integrated into this lab experiment as well.
The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
Purpose and Techniques: This experiment has the aim to determine a chemical formula of hydrated compound, which ingrains cupper, chloride and water molecules in its structure. In order to find this hydrated compound, it is necessary to use the law of multiple proportions. In other word, finding the appropriate variables values to this compound (CxCly*zH2O). Additionally, two major steps are required to proceed the experiment.
This makes it easier for the electron to be released to react with hydrogen gas either in water or in hydrochloric acid. Magnesium reacts with oxygen resulting in a bright white flame and produced magnesium oxide. After the combustion was completed, magnesium oxide was placed into the beaker containing water and the pH level of the solution was neutral. It could produce a basic solution if the oxide layer of the magnesium ribbon was cleaned completely, to ensure that it does not hinder the reaction between magnesium and
so that means that the longer chain will have a slow reaction. It does not have a color and it does not cause fires to happen. It may burn the skin because it is a corrosive substance which is why you should wear gloves when you are handling it. If you swallow the hydrogen chloride then it can be dangerous because it is a toxic substance The bonding in hydrogen chloride is called covalent bonding because nonmetals and metals have the capability to react