TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
The most common are precipitation and complexation. In a precipitation reaction, an ion in solution reacts with an added reagent to form a solid. Whether a solid will form from a given reaction can be predicted by the solubility product constant (Ksp) of the solid under the given conditions. Solubility product constants are the equilibrium constants for the dissolution of an "insoluble" ionic solid in water. A low Ksp implies that the compound does not dissolve to an appreciable degree in water.
The mobile phase and stationary phase in the HPLC will involve in the mechanism. The stationary phase in HPLC normally will be the silica gel. The silica gel will help to separate the components in the liquid sample as its particle size, surface properties and pore structure will lead to good separation results of solvent by minimize the length of diffusion path. The silica gel is also inert to most solvent so it can separate various type of chemical compound with high reproducibility. During the separation, the component in sample will interact with the adsorbent material within the pores of the stationary phase.
Ionization refers to the production of gas phase ions suitable for resolution in the mass analyser or mass filter. There are a many on sources available, each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. For example, Electron Ionization (EI) gives a high degree of fragmentation, yielding highly detailed mass spectra which when skilfully analyzed can provide important information about structural elucidation/characterization and facilitate identification of unknown compounds by comparison to mass spectral libraries. However, EI is not suitable for coupling to High-performance liquid chromatography, since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly. Thus EI is coupled predominantly with Gas Chromatography, where the entire system is under high
Desalination through reverse osmosis removes the salts from the water with the help of membrane. These membranes are non porous and allows certain materials to pass through them. The holes in the mesh of reverse osmosis membrane are of the size that allows only water molecules to pass through them, leaving behind the salt molecules. Salt is a prospective by-product of desalination by reverse osmosis. High operating pressure is required to push the water through these membranes.
However, this method has been modiﬁed suitably under controlled conditionsand has become an industrial tool for partial separation of fatty acids. Temperature-controlled crystallization has been used inthe industry to separate the oleic acid rich fraction from amixture of oleic and linoleic acids. The main disadvantage of this process is poor separation, as the separation is only based on the solidiﬁcation point, resulting in the contamination of each fraction of the acids with high levels of other acid
Richard Heck is a chemist known for his works on carbon-coupling through the use of the atoms of the metal palladium to catalyze the bonding of carbons. This method was known as the Heck reaction. He was awarded the Nobel Laureate Prize in Chemistry last 2010 for his works that lead to a new way of innovation and inspiration to both young and old chemists. Heck was inspired to study science and in particular, chemistry from his interest in planting orchids when he was a child. As a teenager, he was interested in the chemicals that compose fertilizers and the pigments and nutrients of plants that lead to his eventual pursuance of chemistry through college and eventually earning himself a PhD at UCLA.
The only difference from normal phase is that the column now is modified in order to attach long hydrocarbon to it surface. When a polar solvent is used strong attractions between the polar solvent and polar molecules in mixture being passed through the silica. Polar molecules will spent most of the time moving with the solvent because there will not be as much as attraction between the hydrocarbon chains attached to silica and the polar molecules in the solution. About the non polar mixtures, because of the Van der Waals forces will tend to form attractions with hydrocarbon
Used solvents contain contaminants that can be removed by fractional distillation. The recycled solvents have purities suitable for re-use. Fractional distillation is used to separate the crude oil into its various components such as gasoline, kerosene oil, diesel oil, paraffin wax, liberating oil. Fractional distillation is also used for the purification of water. Water contains many dissolved impurities; these can be removed by this process.