Unfortunately, the modal infallibilism is also known to be a source of skeptical argument. Nonetheless, the paper argues that whether the arguments are sound they all depend on significant questions regarding the semantic of alethic modals and the metaphysics of possibility. Despite the arising issues, modal infallibilism is an aspect that individuals will have to accept. Work cited Churchland, Paul M. Matter, and consciousness.MIT Press, 2013. Pp.
Bryman (2015) highlighted that this type of design lacked strong internal validity and was hard to clarify the causality of variables. Another was generated from the solidarity model. Bengtson and Roberts (1991) admitted that without long-term longitudinal appraisal, the intergenerational solidarity model heavily relied on the instant imagery. The combination of these two factors consequently led to the absence of accurate explanation. Despite the limitations mentioned above, Lin and Yi briefly presented the background information, delineated the differences existing in these four regions accurately and answered the research questions with sufficient and strong data interpretation.
It is so important because to most people experiences in an organization influences how they evaluate their own individual achievements and self-worth. However, the question is how people relate to developing competencies in communication of excellence in an organization (Watson, 2013). Organizational experiences of an individual results from the preferences, beliefs, abilities, and attitudes the employee brings t the organization, what types of relationships in organizations the individual develops, and how the organization plans to influence a person. Each individual brings to the organization their personal needs, communication competencies, predispositions for behaviour, skills and expectations (Ott, 2005). Individuals also create relationships with theirs, supervisors, customers, vendors and employees that become primary sources of information about all organizational aspects (Milkman,
Dichotomies as false reflections of reality: Scholars also argue that dichotomies are not concrete reality but rather assumptions and metaphors which hardly correlate with the reality, which is fluid and in which such fixed concrete categories are rarely found (Barbe 2001, Eckel and Weber 2007). Katharina Barbe (2001) suggest that there is a serious need to re-evaluate dichotomies before their repeated use since its use can lead us to misconceive “relationship between opposing hypothesis” (Wilkins 1982: 22 cited in Barbe 2001). In the case of the North-South divide, Julian Eckl and Ralph Weber argue that such divisions tend to simplify issues of global inequality in two categories, wherein both the practitioners and analysts start treating
In this milestone we will be looking at a few key items of employee and labor relations. Some items that this paper will cover are things such as employee discipline, performance management and employee and labor relations. First, we will start by looking at employee discipline. Employee Discipline: Analyze punitive and nonpunitive disciplinary approaches, and explain their impacts on employee relations. When talking about employee discipline there are two schools of thought.
Also investigated the effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention. This study will highlight some key issue on employee turnover. First, there has been considerable that job satisfaction has significant influence with turnover intention. Second, there has significant associate between organizational commitment and turnover intention. Hence, the relationships between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention are constructed in form of research framework, as shown in figure
Neal, Griffin & Hart (2000) first proposed that organizational climate has a significant impact on safety climate and safety performance. Organizational climate referred to leadership, roles, and communication (James & McIntyre, 1996) which can influence the interactions among employees (Griffin & Mathieu, 1997), attitudes towards organizational achievement (Griffin, 1996) and affective responses to work environment (Michela et al., 1995; Hart et al., 1996a). Organizational climate was perceived by the significance of the environment for individual values, and it exerted a strong impact on individual motivation to achieve job performance (Brown & Leigh, 1996). Besides, Morrison et al. (1997) suggested that organizational climate can have effect on knowledge and skills by increasing participation in training.
Employee Commitment and Motivation: A Conceptual Analysis and Integrative Model Commitment and motivation are related concepts applied towards organizational work. Motivation can be defined as forces originating within and beyond an individual to initiate behaviour and its form, direction, intensity, and duration. Whereas commitment can be defined as a binding force towards a goal. John P Meyer’s and Thomas E. Becker’s integrative model is based on the foundations of J. P. Meyer’s and L Herscovitch’s (2001) model of workplace commitment and E.A Locke’s (1997) work motivation process. Motivation and commitment are both forces which influence behaviour.
Moyes, (2007) has meanwhile explained three main factors influencing the performance of the team: the elements of the team itself, the team support by managers and by other sectors of the organisation, the internal process of the constitution of the team. Mani, (2010) indicates that the main factors affecting the performance of the team are the team structure and process team. The factors of the team structure include the diversity of the composition of the team, the size of the team and the combination of the roles in the team. The factors of team processes include team environment, team learning and self-management, team motivation and assessment of team performance. In terms of organisational environment, Stringer, and Didham, (2011) noted that previous research on the performance of the team generally neglect the relationship between the organisational system and the performance of the team.
Given that motivation is subjective and varies amongst different people, it poses as a drawback for predicting behavioural changes in a community or society. Gotlieb and Swan (1990) espoused this argument, stating that ‘the ELM predicts that when high motivation occurs, the subject will carefully process the arguments in the message.’ The emphasis on the subject underscores the ELM’s limited predictive capabilities to only the individuals. Angst and Agarwal (2006) agreed that different recipients ‘will vary in how much cognitive energy they devote to the message.’ As a result, extending the theory for application to a wider range of audiences may not be accurate and representative of the masses. Although the ELM is a predictive theory, it is imperative to note that its strength is accentuated only when targeted at