Transformational leaders encourage follower to go beyond their own interest, do more than it’s required and attain the unexpected goals. They are proactive by nature and focuses on social values and always there in time of stress and change (B.M B. , 1999) (B.M B. , 1985). They are models of integrity and don’t deal with biasness, set clear goals, have high expectations, provide support and recognition, blend the emotions and passions of (Pierce & Newstorm, 2008) (B.M B. , 1985)). Transformational leadership is comprised of five elements which are idealized influence (attribute and behavior), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Idealized influence defines the degree in which leaders are observed as an inspiring role model.
Leadership is an essential task in management (Weihrich, et al., 2008), as it is an important factor that contributes enormously to the over-all wellbeing of the organisations (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). As stated by Cox (2001), transactional and transformational are two important types of leadership. The differentiation amongst these two types of leadership was initially made by Downton (1973), as cited in (Barnett, et al., 2001), and introduced by Burns (1978) in his descriptive work on political leaders. Transformational Leaders Transformational leadership is also defined as the way of influencing the employees by “broadening and elevating followers’ goals and providing them with confidence to perform beyond the expectations specified in
It is opined that transformational leaders can develop trust, motive followers to perform beyond the call of duty, establish loyalty and guide followers to be willing to identify with the organization and the leaders. Hence, they are able to transform followers Givens (2008) cited by (Bass, 1985). They are viewed as role models, mentor, facilitator and teacher who are able to motivate and group followers to perform tasks. Leaders are inspirational in that they give meaning to those who perform the task which involves providing a vision or goal. Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration are the four factors of transformational leadership.
Moreover, transformational leaders show to their subordinates how task should be accomplished with determination. Typically, they accept almost everything including risk to achieve certain goal and for innovation. However, this is not always good all the time. The entire organization and its operation will suffer if they always do immoral and unethical behaviors. Furthermore, generating ideas without merit is one disadvantage of transformational leadership.
They explain TL effect on team members, and the behavior used to attain this effect. The subordinates feel faith, respect, faithfulness, and esteem toward the leader, and they are interested to do more than they initially expected to do. Transformational leaders inject motivation and exceed their personal-interest for the achievement of organization goals. Review of literature provides a big difference between transformational leadership and transactional leadership, which include an exchange procedure to inspire team members, consent with leader wishes and association rules. Transformational leadership explains different behaviors which the researchers measured with survey method and the recent version of (Bass, 1996; Bass & Avolio, 1990) presents the same concepts as: (1) regular feedback, (2) encouragement to team members, (3) calculated risk, (4) vision for future, and (5) reward to colleagues.
Characteristic of Transformational Leadership Diaz-Saenz (2011) described that more than 30 years, transformational leadership has been the one of the most studied and debated within the field of leadership. This term was first stated by Dowton (1973), after that James Mac Gregor Burns (1978) tried to link the role of leadership and followership, and stated that transformational leadership is quite different with transactional leadership, because it is contrary with followers’ need. Burns explained the differences about transactional and transformational leadership, he explained that transactional leadership is focus on exchanges that happen between leaders and followers, the employees got what they achieved. Manager who give promotion after
A transformational leader helps motivate people, becomes a role model for followers, and inspires people to look beyond their self-interest and to raise follower’s interest in the project. Transformational leaders set a more challenging expectations and since they set a high expectation they achieve a higher performance. Transformational leadership starts with developing the vision, it is a view of what might happen in the future that will excite followers. A leader might develop this. The next step after developing the vision is to sell the vision.
Innovations becomes a rule rather exception; leads to creation of pool of future leaders and not just ordinary followers. However, there are some challenges which need to be taken care of under this leadership type. This model assumes that followers will work towards a larger goal; the application of this model in real life situation is time consuming. This type of leadership answers the question “what” but not “How”. There had been examples in our world when people like Adolf Hitler and Osama Bin Laden, very glaring examples of pseudo transformational leadership type (Graham, Ziegert, & Capitano, 2015) had led the world to devastation and
In cohesion with post-bureaucratic ideals, transformational leadership involves a visionary component that can inspire and motivate people to work towards change, leading to increased performance. Thus by showing empathy, much like Giuiliani through showing his own humanity, leaders are able to create an open- yet continuously productive- environment. This focus on a more humane and open leadership styles, is a clear indication on a change in practices in a post-bureaucratic era, comparatively to hierarchical bureaucratic