Skill mismatch can be define as the differential in skills acquired by labor and skills needed by employer in the labor market. Skill mismatch also can be viewed in term of over-under educated mismatch, self report on skill mismatch and shortage-oversupply of labor skills. Besides that, skill mismatch is caused by many factors such as geographical and educational background. In addressing skill mismatch, initiatives need to be done so that the skills acquired by the labor would match the skills needed by the employers. Before further discussing on the issue of skill mismatch in the labor market, it will be more appropriate to discuss on the definition of skill mismatch itself.
1.0 Theory X and Y Douglas McGregor's theory X and Y described two assumptions that managers make to motivate and value employees. McGregor claim that Theory X assume employees dislike working, require coercion to complete assigned tasks and look for guidance. In contrast, Theory Y managers assume workers care about the organization; seek for responsibility and capable of regulating their performance. McGregor believed that this theory provides managers a more reality-centred, flexible approach in formulating their organization controlling (Sager, 2015). 1.1 Management Style of Theory X While looking into the management style, Theory X is negatively related to followers’ satisfaction towards leaders (Gürbüz, Şahin and Köksal, 2014).
In that direction, Bourdieu (1984/2010:222) introduces some factors on the historical materialism’s understanding of the labor market: for the author, beyond the differences between the owners of means of productions and the labor suppliers, the analysis must contemplate how rare a post is, the advantages (material and symbolic) it rewards and the qualifications it demands in order to assess how long a job supplier can endure a strike or individual withdraw and how far a worker can refuse a job position based on the worker’s individual characteristics (age, family, qualifications and vulnerabilities). These characteristics from both sides are determinants on social and labor relations and are deeply influenced by capital composition, social trajectory and context. Social class, thus, is not only a result of relations of production, but by “the class habitus which is normally associated with that position” (Bourdieu, 1984/2010: 373). For this reason, occupation, age, exposure to culture, educational qualifications and capital composition have a direct effect on personal ambitions, taste, consumption (consequently, habitus) and this is reflected on a person’s perception of class belonging and his/her position on the social
Tidd et al. (2001) have stated that incremental innovation (“more of the same”) requires a different approach to organization and management compared to radical innovation, an argument generally found in organizational ambidexterity studies (O'Reilly & Tushman, 2013; O'Reilly & Tushman, 2004). It is understood that the similarity between incremental designs in an organization allows the use of models, such as those of Pugh (1991), Cooper (1993), Rozenfeld et al. (2006) or Thomas (1993), that detail the operational phases of development to a greater extent. An analogy with the resource specialization in manufacturing operations might be made: efficient production of high volume of similar products allows more rigid and dedicated processes (in terms of sequence adopted, tools and machinery), a more mechanistic work structure and more routinized and predictable activities - so would be the "production" of high volume of similar projects.
Pacanowsky and O 'Donnell-Trujillo argue that organizational cultures differ because the interactions within those cultures differ, so generalizing about life in organizations is nearly impossible. Each is a unique organization with unique organizational environments. (West & Turner, 2004) 4. Stephen Littlejohn (2002) argues the theory presupposes that organizations must be studied independently, and in doing so, generalizing across organizations is difficult. (West & Turner,
Capital-in-general as used by Bourdieu does indeed involve power, but it is a distinctive kind of power. It involves a set of different kinds of claims that can be made on the actions of others. For instance, social capital consists of claims to reciprocity and solidarity from particular others. What is fundamental to social capital, however, is that explicit claims are normally excluded from the performances within which they are made, so that the power over the actions of others is radically distinct from exercises of power utilizing the discourse and apparatus of command (Bourdieu 1986:241). Hence, this study relies on CMA to understand the power of culture on the connection between social structure and health behaviour regarding the prevention of diseases (Singer 1995:81; Morsy 1996 as quoted by Singer 2004:26).
Introduction The classical methodologies considering the sociology of work can best be understood through the ideas of ‘the gang of three’: Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emilie Durkheim. Marx and Weber are commonly referred to as conflict theorists. They implied that any social order involved conflicting interests, and as a consequence, that conflict between groups was a fundamental part of each and every society. Yet, Durkheim’s ideas start with a very dissimilar premise, known as functionalism. In particular, one of Marx’s most recognised concepts is the notion of exploitation within capitalism.
Agency theory Jensen and Meckling (1976) argued that agency relationship takes place when the principals engage the agents to perform some of their duties on their behalf. Agency cost arises because of conflicting interests of the managers and owners. Short et al (2002) argues that Dividend policy performs a crucial role in reducing agency costs, which have arisen from the conflicting interests of both the parties. According to Rozeff (1982) dividend payment is a device to reduce agency cost. Jensen (1986) suggested that dividend payment could create conflicts among the managers and shareholders because managers are more willing to retain resources instead of paying dividends.
(Kolarik, 1995) Losses in today’s pugnacious economic condition could even be appalling. In the current economic and political situation that everyone is facing now, it is authoritative for upgrading to be hunted in industrial settings where correlations among the variables and autocorrelations are possible. This work will lecture the needs in MSPC by analyzing the limitations of convinced historical discoveries. Also, it is by utilizing robust nonparametric methods that can be applied to industrial settings. The absence of a unified approach in multivariate quality with non-normality, this work suggests a new organized and effective method.
• Variability Analyzation : Variances in processes or outcomes are primary causes of quality problems in the TQM view. When variances are in unacceptable ranges, however, causes need to be identified. Identifying the root causes of unwanted variability un products or services should enable employees to make improvement leading to better quality. • Work Processes Focus : Quality of products and services ultimately depends on the processes that produce them. Thus, a need for processes should be given to employees so that can make improvements in them.