For purposes of instrument development, organizational commitment was defined here as the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization (Porter & Smith, Note 4). It can be characterized by at least three related factors: (1) a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values; (2) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and (3) a strong desire to maintain membership in the
Mowday, Porter and Steers (1982), state that organizational commitment is a global construct revealing the affective responses of the employee to the whole of the organization. The development of commitment to the organization begins at time of employment, continues over a period of time and involves interplay of attitudes and behaviors. Porter, Crampon and Steers (1976), report that the level of commitment reported by employees on the first day of employment predicted turnover up to several months on the job. Alternatively, Hunt and Morgan (1994) advocate the multiple commitment view of organizational commitment. They report organizational commitment to be defined as multiple commitments to various groups comprising the organization, such as commitment to the work group, the supervisor and to top management.
According to Mckenna (2005:17), identifying where an employee‟s commitment is focused can avail determine the type of commitment an employee feels because it is possible for employees to feel committed to different factors such as a project, the team, the supervisor and the customers. Equipollently consequential are the antecedents of organisational commitment, such as employee training which has been linked to organisational
In this essay, through the empirical studies of Larsen and Brun ,and Riddle, I will explore the influence of Availability Heuristic and its impact on how tourists pose more travel risks/hazards to other tourists than themselves and how violence in tv shows can allow for quick social reality judgements. Larsen and Brun conducted an experiment where they discovered that through availability heuristic tourists tend to associate more travel risks/hazards to other tourists than themselves. In 2010
This part of the paper deals with the results of the empirical testing of face-negotiation theory. The impact of cultural, individual and situational factors on face and facework is discussed in terms of previous research. It should not be surprising that culture, defined by Herskovits (1955) and Triandis (1972) as the human-made part of the environment, which consists of “objective and subjective elements that … became shared among those who could communicate with each other because they had a common language and lived in the same time and place” Triandis (1972, p. 3) significantly influences every aspect of our life, in particular, face concern and facework. In general, both early and further testing of the face-negotiation theory showed
Organizational Commitment Many research findings have proven that there is a relationship between organizational commitment and job-related behaviors and attitudes in the fields of organizational behavior or management (Angle & Perry, 1981; Koch & Steers, 1978; Mohammed & Eleswed, 2013; Porter,Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). Bateman and Strasser (1984) described organizational commitment as multidimensional in nature, referring to employees’ loyalty, willingness to exhibit maximum effort to their organizations, degree of goal and value in accordance with organizations, and the intentions to remain within the organizations. Mowday et al. (1982 )proposed that organizational commitment is popular due to “(a) a strong belief in and acceptance
Commitment is also defined as an individual’s desire to remain focused and attached to his work. Organizational commitment is a core issue for the management of the organizations. Organizational commitment directly relates to the performance of employees and treated as an issue of great importance. (Meyer et al., 2002) Organizational commitment, as conceptualized by Allen and Meyer, is a three-component structure; where affective, continuance and normative commitment form the three facts of organizational commitment. Allen and Meyer (1991), argued that affective, continuance and normative components of commitment are separable; conceptually and empirically.
The objective of the organization is not only to acquire but to maintain an efficient and effective work force and most importantly incite commitment to the organization. This is because commitment is the psychological tie between the organization and the employee, which increase the chance that the employee will remain with the organization and contribute above average effort to the organization (Allen Meyer, 1996). Highly committed employees are less likely to leave the organization to explore other opportunities. Committed organizational members contribute positively to the organization. Cohen (1993) states that “organizations whose members have higher levels of commitment show higher performance and productivity and lower levels of absenteeism
Camerer published in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization in the year 1998 under the name “Disposition effect in securities trading: an experimental analysis”. This research was conducted in New York Stock Exchange. Their analysis is based on prospect theory, that is, outcomes or profits are determined based on a reference point and investors are not ready to take risk in the in the gain domain, but investors are ready to take risk in the loss domain. They termed the difference in risk attitudes of investors for gains and losses as reflection effect. How reference point effects investor behavior was studied under different economic conditions.
McCaul, Hinsz and McCaul (1995) found that the OC could be conceptualized as employee’s global attitude towards the organization. The study supported the view that attitudinal commitment is related to retention and behavioral commitment is related to performance. Huselid and MacDuffic (1995) studied the effects of HRM systems on OC.Mignerey, Rubin and Gordon (1995), and Ashforth and Saks (1996) studied the effects of socialization and training on OC. It is suggested that commitment can be affected by training experiences, which in turn can influence employee’s motivation for future training. Biswas and Balaji (1996) in a study of belief in co-operative values and employee attitudes found that value congruence was positively relate to behavioral intentions and satisfaction measures but not to OC measure.