Effective leadership is seen as major source of management to sustained competitive advantage for organization performance improvement according to (Avolio, 1999; lado, Boyd and Wright, 1992; Rowe, 2001). According to Yukl (1989) most of leadership definition describe it as the idea of guiding followers to their goals while specifically, leadership is hard to understand but easy to perceive human activities. According (Smith, 2000 in Marn 2012) stated that “leadership is the process or activity of influencing an individual or group in effort towards
Winston’s every move is watched and controlled by the governmental figurehead known as “big brother”. The characters in the story are used to show the theme in the sense that most are essentially brainwashed by, and therefore loyal to and under control of, the overbearing government. The main conflict of the story is between the main
There were transactional and transformational were found to have direct relationship with employees’ job satisfaction. There is a lot of research conducted focusing on transformational leadership among employees’ in organization. Transformational leadership is a style that motivates followers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values (Katherine J.Barker and SUNY Fredonia, 2007). Besides that, according to Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1997) there are four dimensions of transformational leadership. There are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration (M.L.
It involves clear direction and vision for an organization. A weak leader generally will be unsuccessful to gain victory over staff and will have difficulty in corresponding and organizing workers effectively this is why transactional leadership style is weak because it motivates at a foundation level only or in other words the basic need like food and shelter. Transactional leadership support compliance of followers through both penalties and rewards which do not motivate at the higher level of human development. Transactional leadership works better with employees who know their jobs, it is where the status qou of an organization is maintained which is not good for utilizing the skill for higher level. Hence, creativity is limited as the goals and objective are already set and does not reward personal initiative.
Credo creates framework that helps in decision making considering the quality and their impacts. This includes putting the customer first, education, communication, leadership ownership and engagement. J&J’s main focus includes having a diverse and inclusive workforce with a leadership pipeline, having a culture of inclusion in the workplace, and leveraging cultural insights in the overall marketplace. J&J values their stakeholders by creating an environment of mutually beneficial relationships. Any global company today is faced with problems of handling the issues related to diversity and a workforce which are
Nevertheless, Participative/ democratic leadership is, in my opinion, a great form of leadership. It not only includes workers with their opinions and gives importance to workers and the feeling of being of value to the company. It still provides structure and clarity based on the clear separation in final decisions by management. I believe that management and employees need to work as a team to be successful. As such manager should include employees in updates, information flow, even creation of workflow and goal setting.
However, the need of strong emotional intelligence is require for the people who lead others. Ermer (2012) stated that the terms strong emotional intelligence and leadership have deep link as it helps the leaders to recognise the needs of their employees, there satisfaction level, retention and their performance. It is important for leaders to observe the level of satisfaction among its employees in order to motivate them and to help them in performing according to the high working standard so that they can benefit the organisation. Here are some of the factors that are important for an emotionally intelligent leader who possess the responsibility and proficient to lead people especially in an organisation (Houghton, et al.,
The effect of power on culture and leadership is real and this effect can be long lasting. The term power conjures up images of both evil and good and is a subject that is rarely discussed in management planning sessions or leadership training. But, because strength is the basis for influence attempts understanding its uses and limitations help a leader to learn to use it effectively. Becoming a efficacious leader is critical because companies do not form accidentally. Leaders help companies for culture by being goal oriented, having a specific purpose, and are created because one or more individuals perceive that the concerted and coordinated action of a number of people can accomplish something that individual action cannot.
Leadership is an essential task in management (Weihrich, et al., 2008), as it is an important factor that contributes enormously to the over-all wellbeing of the organisations (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). As stated by Cox (2001), transactional and transformational are two important types of leadership. The differentiation amongst these two types of leadership was initially made by Downton (1973), as cited in (Barnett, et al., 2001), and introduced by Burns (1978) in his descriptive work on political leaders. Transformational Leaders Transformational leadership is also defined as the way of influencing the employees by “broadening and elevating followers’ goals and providing them with confidence to perform beyond the expectations specified in