Leadership And Management Literature Review

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‘Organizations provide its managers with legitimate authority to lead, but there is no assurance that they will be able to lead effectively’ (Lunenburg, 2011). Organizational success usually requires a combination of both management and leadership. In today’s dynamic work environment, leaders are expected to challenge the present state of affairs, and to motivate and convince organization members. Managers are needed to assist in creating and maintaining a positive and well-functioning workplace.

Leadership and management are often considered practically overlapping concepts’ (Bohoris and Vorria, 2007, p. 1). Some individuals see these terms as synonyms and frequently use them interchangeably throughout phrases and sentences. Others view
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However, nowadays groups, companies and organizations need both powerful leaders and managers to produce desired results. Moreover, Abraham Zaleznik (1977) discussed the parallel between leaders and managers and mentioned that they both make a valuable contribution to an organization; although, each one’s contribution is different (Lunenburg, 2011). While some obvious similarities can be found between leadership and management, there are also some noteworthy differences, as previously stated.

The purpose of this essay is to clarify the relationship between leadership and management based on existing literature. It begins with the more detailed description of both leaders and managers, outlines the main characteristics and tasks, followed by discussion and supported by examples. In conclusion, the most valuable points of the essay will be summarized briefly.
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As mentioned above, there are five tasks of management that should be accomplished in a daily work routine. Those are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling (Koontz and O’Donnell, 1976). Notwithstanding that some theorists, such as Richard Steers (1985) and Mason Carpenter (2009), highlight only four of those, planning is always considered to be the first and main function of management. It is an activity that involves choosing a strategy to accomplish the objectives of the organization, using the resources effectively and efficiently (Olum, 2004). To make a good plan, a manager should follow the essential steps of planning, which are setting goals, identifying the threats and opportunities of the organization, developing a plan for achieving the goals, and finally evaluating it and reviewing (Gamache, 2008; Duncan,

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