He analyzes written works and speeches of imperialist like Balfour, Cromer, and Kissinger, whose speeches reveal the ideology basis used by Western powers to justify their occupation of the East region of world. This first chapter of Said works is relevant in a sense that it shows that even colonizers need to justify to themselves their colonialist action. That means that, even though colonialism in itself is mostly driven and motivated by greed and desire to acquire others wealth, the colonizers conscience still has a need for proper moral justification for their greed action. The justification pointed out on this first chapter, by Said’s reviews, are that Orientals have no enough intelligence and need the help of the Western in order to grow and develop both morally and socially. And that justification resulted in nothing more that colonialism in itself, as said by Said “The most important thing about the theory during the first decade of the twentieth century was that it worked, and worked staggeringly well.
Where is all the improvement? That is a very frank question. Casually looking at his race one would think that the continent could not sustain development, however a thorough study of history will reveal the exploitation of Africa by the Europeans. The rich continent was subject to rude interruptions by unwanted visitors across the Atlantic. These came in the guise of bringing ‘civilization’ and ‘religion’ to the ‘barbarians’ in the land.
This chapter will explore Orientalism and Orientalism in Art and Design. Orientalism is a label used by art historian’s literature and cultural academics for the study on aspects of the Middle East or Asian cultures. Orientalist painting, which portrayed more precisely “the middle East” was of one of the many specialisms of the 19th century academic art and the litterateurs of European countries took a similar interest in oriental matters. It is interesting to note that this study of the Middle East is often a study of ‘otherness’ being that the art and culture of the Middle East is seen as ‘other’ in western culture. Sometimes the culture of the ‘Orient’ is appropriated and used out of context by artist designers.
Mohsin says that American capitalism focuses upon the fundamentals. This kind of issues makes Changes to discover his own identity. Changes regrets the colonialist ideology and its assumptions of superiority by asserting his pride in his past Asian culture and civilization. He remembers the past achievements of the native culture he comes from and reminds American. He worries that every Pakistani abroad
Dependency theorist say that modernizing theory is all about diverting the natural resources of the traditionalist, primitive societies for the satisfaction of the ulterior greed of the advanced nations. Modernizing Theory concerns itself with becoming and experiencing west. Western in approach, life style, thought and practice. Dependency Theorists criticize Modernization theory saying that it is orientalist and cyclic in nature. Modernization Theory is also about the failure of the non-western countries.
Post-colonial theory according to John Lye(1998) deals with [T]he reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonized countries or literature written in colonizing countries which deals with colonization or colonized peoples. It focuses particularly on the way in which literature by the colonizing culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonized people and on literature by colonized peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past's inevitable otherness. Postcolonial theory is built in large part around the concept of otherness. There are however problems with or complexities to the concept of otherness, for
The concept of altruism begins with the ‘slave revolt in morality’; wherein “ressentiment itself becomes creative and gives birth to values.” The considered bad are those who are powerless to express their feelings thereby causing hostility to end their frustration and suffering. Through this ressentiment, pride, strength, self – satisfaction and selfishness became the ‘bad’ of noble morality. Nietzsche shows in
In fact, to Rousseau, “[m]an is made weak by human society by the way that society is developed”. Humanity from tis onset is pure only to be corrupted by self-interest. When applying this to the State he lives in, Rousseau is quick to make a clear European/Non-European divide. Rousseau sees the hallmarks of white European society – arts, science, and formal governance – as its biggest constraints. This implies that the “others”, the primitive and the indigenous Non-European people are “indicative of man at its most pure state”, as they are “the most peaceable” and “least subject to jealousy”.
Through their writings they distort real story of India so as to give emphasis to their superior status. In contemporary non-fiction books written by western writers’ they portray “East” as savage minded, criminals and “West” as superior, dominant type. Through this envision they created an image of East as the “Other” which is no way similar to them. This ideate distinction between East and West formed the basis of Edward Said’s “Orientalism”. The Eurocentric superiority perception compels them to distort the reality according to their preferences.
this pre-modern world gave way to forces of scientific and instrumental rationality, secularism, industrialism, and the bureaucratic state – all of which, combined, disenchant the world” (ibid.). But the palpable and dualistic nexus of man with nature has its roots in the very anthropocentric foundation of human civilization. Many critics held that the Bible’s privileging of man and its consequent trivialization of the external world as resources to ‘exploit for his proper ends’ (White Jr. 10) are at the root of all present environmental crisis. Naturally the Euro-centric materialistic world view in its mad pursuit of worldly progress, coupled with the dominant ideology of enlightenment rationalism further marginalized nature, orienting man into