They also had more influence on English than the Celts. Also cities ending with –chester comes from the Romans, Manchester and Winchester for example. Anglo Saxons invaded Britian after The Romans did their thing there. Anglo Saxons consisted of germanic tribes from Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands. They gave a lot of words to the English language and they were the first to put a fairly big influence on English.
When one looks up the term “Loanword” in the English dictionary , one shall know it is a word in one language that, has been borrowed from another language . Loanwords are usually naturalized and adopted by other languages and are made adaptable to be easily pronounced. Just like: bazaar from Persian “bāzār”, Café from French and the French term déjà vu. These are well known adaptations, or lexical borrowing. The word “loanword” is a calque of the German word “Lehnwort”, which strikes one’s attention that this term, might has a Germanic background.
William Caxton’s “ Morte D‘Arthur” was first published in 1485, making it a Middle English text. Many of the grammatical and lexical features of the Middle English vernacular are discernable in Caxton’s work. It becomes clear how many changes the English language had to go through to evolve into the Modern English we know today. Especially the preface of “Morte D’Arthur” is an excellent example of these changes. One of the most noticeable developments has taken place in spelling.
Each symbol of the written language of the Roman met one of the speech sounds of spoken Latin. The Roman alphabets didn’t have letters meet all English sound; some of the letters has been taken from Germanic alphabets, which was futhark or futhorc. However, it was still there more sounds in Old English which didn’t have letters presented them. Over four centuries the Anglo-Saxons have been developed a successful system that enables them to write their language. The basic sound-to-symbol and symbol-to-sound system were simple, however, it was ruined by successive events like Norman Conquest and the French-speaking who added and applied some of their spelling rules to English.
/ŋ/in English, similar to its equivalent in Kurdish, is not viewed as a phoneme on the piece of a few creators (Roach, 2000). /ŋ/never happens in beginning positions or after a diphthong or a long vowel. /m/and/n/each has two allophones: syllabic and nonsyllab. 5- Laterals The/l/is a sidelong phoneme in English. The acknowledgment of/l/before vowels is not the same as that found in other connections.
The two-gender system in Danish, Swedish and Dutch, and lost in grammatical gender in English are developed from the original three-gender system. As the two-gender system variant is also found in some Norwegian dialects, it is plausible that these languages, even the Germanic languages, may experience a simplification in the gender distinction, from three to two. Yet more Germanic languages, even the dialects, should be investigated to come to this
2.2 Concept The concept of the study consists of several parts which each part is based on general ideas proposed and stated by experts. 2.2.1 Concept of Noun Noun is a very large class of words which refer to entities (person, things, substances, places, and abstraction of various kinds) according to Leech in his book entitled Introducing English Grammar (1992:75). Noun can be considered as the most important word class since every language has its own noun. Its function in a sentence can be represented as a subject, a direct or indirect object, a subject or object complement, an appositive, an adjective, or an adverb. In grammar, a noun may take place as head of noun phrase, the important word in indicating the subject or object of a verb.
Johnson’s dictionary provided definitions that covered over 114,000 quotations in all branches of learning. The dictionary was more extensive and complex and it facilitated great scholarly achievement. In addition, the English dictionary had a good influence on the style of dictionaries that are currently being used today and those that will be developed in future. Therefore, Johnson played a significant role in protecting and preserving the English language (Lane 1975). This paper seeks to evaluate Mitchell’s (2005) claim that while grammarians were the guardians of the English language in the seventeenth century, lexicographers assumed that role in the eighteenth century.
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list of synonyms defining hard word which borrowed from Latin or French. In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes.
Barbarisms are words of foreign origin. They are considered as wrong non standard expressions. Even though we see barbarisms as inappropriate for an official language, they have merged with the native English vocabulary. Barbarisms are used more by people in conversations and writing. They have been part of English for so long that it has become very difficult or even impossible to avoid their use in