When either the system state dynamics or the observation dynamics is nonlinear, the conditional probability density functions that provide the minimum mean-square estimate are no longer Gaussian. The optimal non-linear filter transmits these non-Gaussian functions and evaluate their mean, which represents a high computational burden. A non-optimal approach to solve the problem, in the frame of linear filters, is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) or the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The EKF or UKF implements a Kalman filter for a system dynamics that results from the linearization of the original nonlinear filter dynamics around the previous state estimates. This research develops an algorithm for the application of the Smooth Transition Autoregressive (STAR) methodology by Terasvirta (1994) to the estimation of the state equation of the Kalman filtering technique.
The range of vibration amplitudes which can be handled is also large. The recorded data contain all the resonances at locations, thus the analysis and determination of natural modes can be done at the data center. The analogue form of data permits processing in several different ways and gives the analyst greater scope in interpretation. 188.8.131.52 INSTRUMENTATION Ambient vibration testing system is divided into the three parts (ⅰ) Data Acquisition system (ⅱ) Power System and (ⅲ) sensing system. As described, the ambient vibration test above three instrument are necessary for the transcription of vibration, for storage of data and analysis of signal for the dynamic parameters.
The net effect of these 2 factor show the loss in power due to the presence of harmonics. A vital factor which helps in quantifying harmonic injection is Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). It is a measure of the harmonic distortion and is found by normalizing the currents or voltages at all frequencies. Fig. 4.
We have obtained a stability condition for equilibrium points. We have also given a numerical example and verified our results. One should note that although the equilibrium points are the same for both integer order and fractional order models, the solution of the fractional order model tends to the fixed point over a longer period of time. One also needs to mention that when dealing with real life problems, the order of the system can be determined by using the collected data. The transformation of a classical model into a fractional one makes it very sensitive to the order of differentiation α : a small change in α may result in a big change in the final result.
In this waveform some harmonics content is present so it is necessary to pass them through a filter. Some varieties of filters are available to improve the output waveform, so following are the normally used filters: 4.7.1 LC Filter: The simplest form of a low pass LC filter is shown in fig.4.3 (1-a) The inductance offers high impedance to harmonic voltage, higher the harmonic number, higher will be the impedance and lower will be the magnitude of the harmonics at the output. fig.4.3 (1-a) Low pass filter The capacitance offers a shunt path for the harmonic current. The higher frequency, the lower will be XC and more harmonics current be by-passed. The filter of fig.
However, this algorithm requires high computational effort and additional motor parameters to be known. In  the duty ratio value is provided by a new fuzzy logic module, whose inputs are the stator flux position, the electromagnetic torque and an input defining the motor operating point, given by the speed and the torque values. This algorithm involves expert knowledge and needs the rotor speed This paper proposes a simple solution for reducing the torque ripple in classical Direct Torque Control, while preserving the good dynamic and structural simplicity of this scheme. The proposed method consists in the modulation of the nonzero voltage vector duration
Study and Design of Current Starved Voltage Controlled Oscillator using Ring Oscillator @ 45nm CMOS Technology Sharad kumar1, Soumendra Kumar Dash2, Sidhant Sahoo3, Bandi Jagdeeshwar Reddy4, Suraj Kumar Saw5, Deepak Prasad6, Vijay Nath7 Department of ECE VLSI Design Group Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India Email: email@example.com Abstract-The implementation of CMOS technology in communication field has become the need in present scenario so as to develop such devices which are compact, noise free and dissipate ultra low power. An oscillator is used in order to generate a periodic signal or waveform for various applications. These applications vary from clock generation in microprocessors to carrier synthesis in cellular phones. All these applications require different types of oscillators that can be connected in various topologies. There are many circuit techniques that are used to develop a VCO.
CHAPTER 6 RESULTS & DISCUSSION The antenna configuration shown in the last chapter are now being represented in their respective output form. In order to represent it we would be displaying the plots like Return Loss, VSWR plot, Impedance plot, Electric field radiation plot and smith plot. The basic objective behind showing these plots is to justify that the designed antenna will radiate efficiently. 6.1 Results: Antenna Configuration 1: 6.1.1.Return Loss Plot: Return loss is a measure of how well devices or lines are matched. A match is good if the return loss is high.