This allows different sweep rates for the two channels but increases the size and weight of the oscilloscope. Next, we will move on to the discussion about the Multiple Beam Oscilloscopes. Multiple beam oscilloscopes have a single tube but several beam producing systems inside. Each system has a separate vertical deflecting pair of plates and a common time base system. The triggering can be done internally using either of the multiple inputs or externally by an external signal or line voltages.
5) Inductors are also employed in electrical transmission systems, in this way, they are used to limit switching currents. In this system, they are more commonly named as reactors. 6) They can radiate electromagnetic interference. Reactance: The ratio between peak voltage to peak current is called the reactance and it is denoted by XL. XL=VP/IP At increasing frequency, on the other hand, the reactance increases and at a sufficiently high frequency the inductor approaches an open circuit.
¬¬¬¬¬¬Abstract Electrical circuits are described with mathematical expressions. Usually, it is possible to calculate the currents and voltages in a circuit by solving a set of equations, the calculations are required to design a safe circuit.and this is one reason why advanced mathematics is so important in the field of electrical engineering. The circuit equations can be determined using Ohm’s Law, which gives the relationship between voltage and current in a resistor (V=IR), and Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws, which govern the currents entering and exiting a circuit node and the sum of voltages around a circuit loop, respectively. Objective(s) The purpose of this experiment is to verify Ohm's Law using resistor in dc and ac circuits.
OVERVIEW OF ECG ANALYSIS SYSYEM In order to extract the information hidden in the ECG signal many types of transformations can be adopted and because of the quasi periodic nature of the non stationary ECG signals transformation is done using the DWT. The ECG signal that is non stationary has P, QRS complex and T waves. The duration of each of the waves signifies the electrical activity of the heart. P wave indicates the atrial contraction or depolarization. PR interval indicates the time duration for the travel of the depolarization wave from the atria to the ventricles.
CHAPTER 5 SIMULATED PERFORMANCE IN DIFFERENT MODES The performance of the Cuk converter-fed BLDC motor drive is simulated in four modes. Supply voltage (vs ) and supply current (is ) are used for estimating the PQ of the system. The performance in each mode of operation is evaluated based on various performance parameters. Satisfactory operation of the BLDC motor are determined by the speed (N), electromagnetic torque (Te ), and the stator current (ia ) of the BLDC motor. Performance of the cuk converter is evaluated by the dc-link voltage (Vdc), inductor’s currents (iLi and iLo), intermediate capacitor’s voltage (VC1 ), switch voltage (Vsw ), and switch current (isw ).To determine the PQ at ac mains PQ indices such as PF, displacement power
For a ferroelectric material like PZT, however, P is itself a function of E as shown in figure 2.6 in this figure, the hysteresis effect, familiar from ferromagnetic, is quite evident. In this region, the field is not strong enough to switch domains with unfavorable direction of polarization. The polarization of domains with unfavorable direction of polarization will start to switch along directions crystallographic ally as close as possible to the direction of the field when the field is increased, causing rapid increase in the measured charge density . The dipoles become increasing aligned with the field and the polarization will follow the `initial curve' shown in Fig.2.6 if an initially unpolarized sample of PZT is subjected to an increasing electric field at a temperature slightly below its Curie point, When the field has increased beyond a certain value, because the dipoles are then all aligned with the field there will be no further increase in polarization. The material is then said to have reached its saturation polarization Ps*.
The fluid can be inhomogeneous, in the sense that the permittivity is a function of position, or it can vary with density. The second term in Eq. (1) is due to inhomogeneities, while the last term is due to variations in the fluid density. Since the last term provides a coupling between the fluid density and the electric field, it is called the electrostriction force density. Discussion has persisted whether or not the electrostriction force density term in Eq.
Supply voltage given to Pin. No. 1(Collector) and Pin.No.3(Anode) of MOC7811=5.5V Output voltage obtained at Pin.No.1 of MOC 7811 without interrupt=5.21v Output voltage obtained at Pin.No.1 of MOC7811 with interrupt=0.08V 5.2 DC MOTOR RPM TESTING DC Motor used in this project is 12 V dc motor which is tested by using digital contact-less tachometer. Arrangement was made so that the sensing circuit gives high to low pulse for each completion of revolution. By measuring the time difference between two successive pulses RPS can be calculated which further provide RPM value, as shown below: Power supply given to DC Motor = 9V Time interval between two successive pulses as seen on CRO = 30.4ms RPS = 1 / (30.4ms) =32.89 RPS = 33 RPM= 33x60 5.3 POWER SUPPLY MODULE TESTING Power supply module was designed to provide 5V DC power supply necessary to drive both motor and circuit.
Design of SRR and its impact on Effective permeability due to change in dimensions S.K.Sahu,C.S.Mishra,G.Palai Electronics and Communication Engineering Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement Bhubaneswar, India firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com Sudhakar Sahu School Electronics engineering KIIT University Bhubaneswar, India Abstract—The effect of effective permeability on split ring resonator (SRR) due to the change of configuration is reported in this research. The uniqueness of proposed SRR is that it can be magnetically coupled to a transmission medium. On suitable shunting to CPW or micro strip technique, it is possible to resonate at different frequency. The shunt strip creates a medium that exhibits negative effective permeability. Here we tried to show the kind of shift in effective permeability due to change in dimension like split gap, radius and size of the ring.