This results in swelling of the cell until the critical volume is reached, afterward the membrane at first leaks and then bursts releasing hemoglobin (Faulkner and king 1970 ). The osmotic fragility test can be performed on freshly taken red cells. The susceptibility to osmotic lysis is primarily determined by the surface area to volume ratio of erythrocytes .Increased osmotic fragility typically occurs in hereditary spherocytosis. Because of their reduced surface membrane area in respect to the cell volume, spherocytes take up less water in a hypotonic solution before rupturing than do normal blood cells. They cannot expand as much as normal discoid erythrocytes and are osmotically more fragile ( Roper and Layton, 2012
ADH increases and water reabsorption and decreases osmolarity of renal filtrate (reduces urine output) by two mechanisms. (1) Within seconds, cells of the collecting duct transfer aquaporins from storage vesicles in the cytoplasm to the apical cell surface and cells begin to take up more water from the tubular fluid. (2) If the ADH level remains elevated for more than 24 hours, it induces the cell to transcribe the aquaporin gene and manufacture more aquaporins (water channels), further raising the water permeability of the collecting duct (Saladin,
This change was the result of osmosis, the movement of water from high to low concentrations, losing mass when the concentration outside the shell was low and vice versa. In addition to showing osmosis, the egg also shows how osmosis plays a part in creating hypotonic and hypertonic states in cells, as the egg’s membrane is similar to that of a cell membrane. Osmosis is not only important in cells, but also explains why salt water shouldn’t be consumed and why our skin gets wrinkly, as water moves from high to low concentrations. In order to improve the accuracy of this experiment, a higher sample size, larger amounts of solutions and better controlled environments should be
Commonly, molecules found within a liquid or a gas will diffuse more efficiently , however, the process of diffusion is altered by a range of permeability, such as the size of the diffusing molecules, the composition of the molecules and the surface area to volume ratio of the substance that the object is disseminating into. The purpose of the experiment is to find out how the size of the surface area and the volume of a cell can effect the rate of efficiency of a cell diffusing into space. The agar cubes act as cells and the surface area acts as the cell membrane. Each group conducts the experiment so the class average data is as precise as possible. In the experiment, agar cubes with the indicator phenolphthalein are used to determine the diffusion of the cubes.
The Cu1+ then react to bicinchoninic acid assay forming a purple water soluble complex. Moreover, the total volume of protein concentration can be measured by the colorimetric technique which will change the colour of sample solution from green to purple in proportion to protein concentration. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE electrophoresis) is probably the most common analytical technique widely used to separate biological molecules, usually a nucleic acid or protein based on their electrophoretic mobility. The motility is a function of conformation, the length of their peptide chain and charge of the molecule. Depending on their size, small biomolecules move faster and more easily fit through the pores in the gel than larger ones.
All three smears were viewed under the oil immersion lens (x1000) (3). The use of oil immersion as opposed to lower magnification allowed the organisms to be viewed more clearly and determine certain characteristics of each bacteria due to the color that appeared under the microscope. The gram stain of Micrococcus leuteus (Figure 1) was gram-positive due to the purple color after being stained. The gram stain of Serratia marcescens (Figure 2) was gram-negative due to the pink color after being stained. The gram stain of M. leuteus, S. marcescens and Escherichia coli (Figure 3) was both gram-positive and gram-negative, because S. marcescens and E. coli are gram-negative (4), and M. leuteus is gram-positive.
On a glass slide, 1 drop of distilled water was placed. Then, a loop-full of culture was transferred on the slide and it must be spread. It is then allowed to dry. Then, the smear must be heat fixed by exposing it to flame for few times until it got fixed. It is to prevent the cell from washing away during the staining and washing process.
If the molecules was to clash to have a clash or have a run in with the membrane they would recover. If the pore is open the molecules will move towards the open pore and sometimes there 's a possibility that it would recover and go through. The size of the pore matters as well. Diffusion is when the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an low area concentration. Osmosis is the movement of water
Therefore, improvement to the method would be to make the higher light intensities so as to be quite accurate, which denotes lamps would be adjusted to a beaker containing elodea from side to side because the smaller light intensities would be less accurate since the light spreads out, and the elodea might be exerted influence on other experiments or background light. Lastly, the other fallacy derives from the water temperature. As the temperature of the water increases, carbon dioxide is produced up until its optimal temperature. In reality, when the plant attains the optimum, denaturalization of enzymes in elodea occurs so that that leads to cessation of oxygen. Similar to this situation, same result would be created when the temperature is too cold.
Concentration of acid and reaction time Aim In this experiment, I’m going to find out the relationship between concentration (mole) of acid and carbonate’s reaction. Hypothesis If the concentration of acid is stronger, then the film canister will pop (react) faster. Because the concentration of Sodium carbonate is always same in my experiment, so the factor that changes the volume of carbon dioxide is concentration of Hydrochloric acid. If the concentration gets bigger, the proportion of acid gets bigger, which means there are more particles (molecule) that will bond with other particles (molecule). For this experiment, the proportion to get a CO2 is 2HCl+Na2CO3 = CO2.., which is 2+ Na2CO3 : 1.
Light pulse therapy works by sending light energy through the outer skin, concentrating on the dermal layer just below. This attacks the problem from the inside; it stimulates growth of collagen. So there is no visible damage. How can i treat Rosacea? There are a couple ways we can treat Rosecea.
Overactive PKA causes chloride ion (Cl-) channels to open and stay open. Sodium ions (Na+) are attracted to chloride ions, so they also leave the cell. The increase of ions in the lumen leads to lower water pressure that in turn leads to water leaving the cells. This water loss leads to the symptoms seen in those infected: severe dehydration, watery diarrhea, and