To use a dialysis machine a tube is inserted into the bloodstream of a patient allowing blood to enter the machine. As shown in Diagram 3, once in the machine the blood flows through tubes and into the dialyzer composed of a semi-porous membrane which works similar to a glomerulus. Blood cells, proteins and other large particles are prevented from passing though while waste products such as urea and salts flow through and are absorbed by sterilised solution called dialysate and are washed away. Dialysate is composed of acidified solution, bicarbonate and purified water. The treated blood is then returned into the bloodstream of the patient.
Controlling Bleeding If someone is bleeding; apply pressure to the wound, ideally with sterile cloth, but a towel or T-shirt will work just fine if you can’t find anything else. Make sure that you elevate the wound above the heart. Mild bleeding usually stops on its own, but If the bleeding has not slowed down or stopped, continue pressuring the wound while getting help.. 6. Heart Attacks and Strokes To relief a regular pain, Aspirin is prescribed by the doctors to help treat mini heart attacks and strokes. Aspirin properties includes anti inflammatory and a blood thinner that helps blood get through large clots that leads to stroke and heart attacks.
It has been proved superior to diazepam with low seizure recurrence, quick recovery from coma and with improved fetal salvagability31. Magnesium sulfate can be administered parenterally by intramuscular(IM) or intravenous (IV) routes. Though IV regimen is more efficacious in achieving stable serum levels of magnesium but requires the use of an infusion pump for safe delivery of drug and has a greater potential for inadvertent overdose. But in low resource setting or developing countries like India the use of IV infusion set is not uncommon. So IM regimen is the standard of care used in most hospitals in India.
A treatment option for those who have suffered an ischaemic stroke is thrombolysis. As 85% of strokes are ischaemic this is a treatment option for many (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).The goal of thrombolysis is to disintegrate the thrombus/embolus occluding the vessel and reduce the scale of tissue damage (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).It is important to note that thrombolysis using ateplase should only be used to treat acute ischaemic stroke once intracranial bleeding has been ruled out by diagnostic imaging, and within 4.5hours of onset by
Complete Blood Count The reason a complete blood count is performed is to detect abnormal from normal. Having either high or low complete blood count can be a marker for various diseases and infections. This particular test is done to measure the exact number of red blood cells in the body. This test also gives us the exact number of the white blood cells. Performing the complete blood count gives us the exact amount of hemoglobin in the patient’s blood.
THROMBOSIS When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets (small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.” Blood clots are good when they help seal a cut to stop bleeding. But sometimes, a blood clot can form when it is not needed.
In addition to this, osmoregulation is associated with controlling the water content of the body. This is monitored so that cells have protection, not allowing over a certain amount of water to enter or exit them. Therefore, the amount of water content is adequately monitored and controlled through water loss. This can occur through the lungs when the body exhales, the skin when we sweat and the body through urine that is formed by the organ known as the kidneys. Moreover, this also includes controlling the content of salts within the body.
Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Patients undergoing chemotherapy because it reduces the production of new blood cells. Blood type test: Blood donation: 1-Autologous blood donation: Before elective procedures, the patient may donate blood to be set aside for later transfusion. Autologous blood products must be clearly labeled
Having too few or too many red blood cells can be a sign that you have certain diseases. The hematocrit test, also known as a packed-cell volume test, is a simple blood test. The test is done by drawing blood from the patient into a test tube. Once that is done the test tube is put into a centrifuge and spun in high speeds. This displacement causes the formation of three layers.
A proper diet and medications help to maintain the critical balances in the body. But if patients have kidney failure, dialysis treatments to remove wastes and excess fluids accumulated in patient’s body. Dialysis can be divided into hemodialysis (patient’s blood is cleaned by machine) and peritoneal dialysis (the blood is cleaned while still inside patient’s body by adding clean fluid to patient’s abdomen). Kidney transplant is to place a healthy kidney in a patient’s body to perform the functions patient own diseased kidneys can no longer perform. Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for severe CKD patients as this treatment provides better quality of life and survival rate than dialysis.
the use of alcohol based antibacterial gels and foams. The video presents research that shows that during standard precaution situations hand washing and the use of alcohol based antibacterial foams are equally effective in ridding the hands of bacteria. I also report in the video that it is during special situations such as infections with Clostridium Difficile (C. Dif.) or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand washing with warm soap and water is more effective in destroying bacteria then the use of alcohol based antibacterial foams.
This means that the heart does not pump blood around the body as effectively as it should (Heart Foundation). With Audrey’s condition, blood pressure should be controlled and monitored as well as her cholesterol levels and heart rate to prevent stroke (John V Amerena, 2013) Digoxin and Warfarin medication will be given as per doctors order. 2. Hypertension means that the blood is pumping with more force than normal through the arteries, which are the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body (Better Health Channel,
If this does occur remove any contaminated clothing and rinse the skin and clothing thoroughly. • Do not inhale chemicals as they can be poisonous. If this does occur take the person away from the substance and take them to a hospital immediately. Method To test my hypothesis, I will add varying amounts of Strontium Nitrate (1-8cm³, adding an extra 1cm³ each time) to 8cm³ of Sodium Nitrate in order to form a white precipitate. I have chosen to use this scale of strontium nitrate because it will give me more results so the graph will be more accurate.
Q1 The organs involved in the homeostatic system of salt regulation are pineal gland, pituitary glands, thyroid gland ,thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary and testis. All our bodies removes uneeded fluid by filtering your blood through your kidney, via osmosis, to draw excess water out of your blood. This requires a balance of sodium and potassium to pull the water across the wall from the bloodstream into a collecting channel in the kidney. A high salt diet will alter this sodium balance, causing the kidneys to have reduced function and remove less water resulting in higher blood pressure. This puts strain on the kidneys and can lead to kidney disease.A high salt intake has been shown to increase the amount of protein in the urine which is a major risk factor for the decline of kidney function.