The experiment we did was a lab to discover how “Miracle Gro” affected the germination of seeds. My group’s original hypothesis was that the seeds with the highest concentration of “Miracle Gro” would grow the most compared to the other seeds. However, after 8 days, the results were the exact opposite; the seeds that got 0% of “Miracle Gro” turned out to be the healthiest and tallest. By the third day, all five seeds, for the water solution, where sprouting. On the other hand, the solution with 4% “Miracle Gro” only had 3 seeds starting to sprout. In addition, the average height of the seed, with pure water, after 8 days, was 8.9 centimeters whereas the average height of the seeds with 4% of “Miracle Gro” was 0.3 centimeters. The difference there is a whopping 8.6 centimeters. Not only that, but the seeds have a coating and when it separates from the seed that signals that the seed is beginning to germinate. After the 8 days, the seeds with only water were all separated from their covering, while the 4% solution only had 2 beginning to peel. Finally, we concluded that because of osmosis, the seeds with more “Miracle Gro” were bound to grow the least. Osmosis says that water wants to go into the area with the less concentration of water, in this case, the seeds. Water triggers the seed’s embryo to begin to grow again. All of this happened with the
Owning the complete collection of Grey’s Anatomy may make someone feel like an expert of the medical field, but when it comes down to knowing the diseases that were common during other periods of time, that understanding seems to be very limited. While diseases like the common cold have been around for a long time, there are many staple diseases that have shaped the medical field and the foundation for medicine today that need to be known. To fully understand diseases during the Elizabethan era, it is vital to understand the cause, type, and treatment of the illnesses that were common during that time period.
N.T., a 72 year old female with a past medical history of hypertension, COPD hyperlipidemia, and hip surgery was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis after the patient made a visit to the ER several days following a severe fall. A CMP was ordered which revealed elevated glucose, creatinine, BUN, CO2, and AST values. Also noted were decreased potassium and ALB values as well as severely elevated creatinine kinase levels.
So, what is the definition of health care associated infections? They are infections that patients acquire while being hospitalized to receive treatment for their conditions either medical or surgical. Many of the HCAIs are preventable. In the modern healthcare, there are many types of invasive procedures that is used to treat patients to help them recover, also some devices are used, and all can be a potential risk for transmitting an infection to the patient while receiving the treatment.
The increase of contracting infections in acute settings and intensive care units is currently of great concern. If these infections go untreated, it can consequently cause the loss of life, and increase mortality and morbidity. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will not pay for infections that were acquired during a hospital stay. This affects hospitals, preventing them from being financially fruitful.
Patients that are admitted to the hospital frequently require intravenous (IV) fluids. Many hospital policies require IV sites to be changed every 72-96 hours to reduce the risk of complications caused by the IV catheter. There is increasing evidence supporting that routine IV site replacement is ineffective (Rickard, McCann, Munnings, & McGrail, 2010, p. 2).
Bloodletting is one of the oldest procedures in our society. It dates all the way back from thousands of years ago where many different cultures practiced it. The Aztecs, Mayans, Mesopotamians, and Egyptians all were cultures that used this method. A physician named Galen, who was from the ancient Greek culture, went more into depth with his research. He found out that arteries were filled with blood and not air contrary to what many people thought around that time. (CITATION1) Galen had two major ideas about bloodletting. Galen believed that blood did not move, so it either stayed right where it was or it flowed out. Additionally, he thought that the balance of phlegm, yellow bile, blood, and black bile were the main origin of either being
Regulating the osmolarity can be accomplished by balancing the concentration of sodium ions with the correct volume of water. Sodium is the main ion that affects the osmolarity of extracellular fluids. The regulation of osmolarity must be assimilated with the regulation of water volume as any changes to one will affect the other. When you need more body fluids you will lose more water than sodium and the osmolarity of the body fluids will increase. The body must keep a certain amount of water however a large amount of sodium can be allowed to be lost. If you were to fall an hit your head you would lose blood your body will then need to compensate for this loss by evening out the amount of sodium and water.
A variety of devices and techniques are available for IV therapy such as an infusion pump, syringe pump, mini infusion pump and IV piggyback/tandem. Large volumes of fluid require an infusion pump this is so the nursing staff can control both the rate and amount of fluid or medication that is given to a patient. The amount of fluid or medication that needs to be delivered to a patient can be set on an hourly basis over a period of hours in total, or until the bag of fluid has finished and another one hung up (Koutoukidis, Stainton, Hughson, 2013, p 452). An infusion pump could be used for a dehydrated patient that will require more than one bag of fluids. Using an infusion pump to control the amount of fluid/medication the patient is to receive also assists in preventing circulatory overload (Koutoukidis et al, 2013, p 452).
In this lab we used two processes called Diffusion and Osmosis. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Diffusion is a process that requires no energy and involves smaller non-polar molecules. In Figure 1 you can see the molecules spreading throughout the glass from the area of high concentration, so that the areas with low concentration are filled evenly as well. The other process was osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane from an area of high contraction to an area of low concentration. Osmosis happens in three different environments. Osmosis is like diffusion in it requiring no energy.