al.. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was produced when the Bacillus sp. TS1-1 was grown in a medium containing sago starch, yeast extract, phosphorus and mineral salt sources, using shake flask mode at 37 ◦C for 24 h. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the medium constituents with respect to CGTase production and activity. A 24 full factorial design (first order model) was carried out to identify the significant effect of medium components towards CGTase production. The variables involved in this initial screening study were sago starch, yeast extract, K2HPO4 and MgSO4·7H2O. Statistical analysis of results have shown that only sago starch and yeast extract have a significant effect on CGTase production.
Exploration Title: Effect of Temperature on rate of Osmosis Submitted By: Abdulkarim Kamal Date Submitted: October 19th 2015 Subject: Biology HL Teacher: Mr. Nick Aim: This is an investigation to determine the relation between temperature of a solution (sucrose) and the rate of osmosis Scientific Context: Osmosis is defined a passive transport process in which a fluid diffuses across a semi-permeable membrane, from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration and vice-versa. There are various factors that could potentially influence the rate of osmosis; these factors include volume, concentration, and temperature. If all external factors that may interfere with rate of osmosis are controlled, the results will show equal amounts of fluid on both sides of the barrier (membrane); this is known as an “isotonic” state. For this lab I will be using water and sucrose to demonstrate the rate of osmosis. In this lab I will be exploring how temperature impacts the rate of osmosis by placing pieces of potato of equal size in solutions of different temperatures and observing the change in mass of potato after a given period of time.
ABSTRACT NRC-04, a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from skin mucous secretions of flat fish winter flounder, shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In order to understand the conformational change of NRC-04 in different types of membrane, our team did experiments on NRC-04 with negatively charged bacterial surface membrane mimetic micelles sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS), zwitterionic eukaryotic middle membrane mimetic micelles dodecylphosphocholine(DPC), gram-negative bacteria outer membrane mimetic micelles Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and bacterial inner membrane mimetic micelles 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol(POPG). Fluorescence test shows that the C-terminus tryptophan residue of NRC-04 interacts with the hydrophobic
Catalase Test, in this test the microbial culture from Nutrient Agar plates were used. This test determines the production of catalase by the microorganisms. Catalase is an enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas thereby, protecting the microorganisms from the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide which is accumulated as an end product of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. (Bahrami-Hessari et. al.
Learning Outcomes After studying this module, you shall be able to • Identify the roles of the Fe protein and MgATP hydrolysis. • Learn the roles of the two metal clusters contained in the MoFe protein in catalysis • Gain insights from recent success in trapping substrates and inhibitors at the active site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor • Know the mechanism of N2 reduction catalyzed by nitrogenase 2. Introduction N-fixing bacteria catalyze the reduction of dinitrogen
Determining the of value of Km & Vmax at 37°C and 65°C using Michaelis-Menten Introduction Biological reactions involves the use of enzymes, which acts as catalyst. Reactions only occur if the substrate fits into the active site of an enzyme and so changes in temperature can denature the enzyme and therefore makes it void. Trypsin is a digestive enzyme used to breakdown proteins such as BAPNA in the body, It has a optimum temperature of 37 °C. The aim of this experiment is to calculate Km and Vmax at 37 and 65 °C by using Michaelis-Menten and Eadie-Hofstee Graph in order to determine how temperature affects the rate of digestion of BAPNA by trypsin. Method Eight ml of six different substrate concentrations (2000, 1500, 1250, 1000,
III: MATERIALS AND METHODS This section will give the list of materials and sample sites needed as well as the procedures in doing the experiment. Furthermore, the treatment groups are shown in here according to content of each treatment and the importance of this to answer the statement of the problems and prove the possibility of Chlorella vulgaris in reducing pollution load. Experimentation The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris will be obtained from the University of Los Baños which is in a solid powdered form in a sterilized container. There will be two treatments, one control group and one treatment group containing triplicates for each. The treatment are as follow: It is important to have a control group (T1) to determine the changes in the water quality without the use of Chlorella vulgaris.
Stoichiometric softening in a contact clarifier was combined with weak acid cation ion exchange polishing. Membrane brine concentrator process flexibility was maximized so that the wide range of feed flow and water quality could be managed. To accomplish this, the team defined four design cases for flow and incoming total dissolved solids . The reverse osmosis and forward osmosis components of the membrane brine concentrator were then design to produce stable brine total dissolved solids, allowing flow and overall recovery to float as necessary. To maximize turndown ratio the forward osmosis component of the membrane brine concentrator was split into three trains.
More information on the derivation of head loss equation can be obtained from the reference . Kinetics of the filtration of dilute suspensions This purpose of this research was to establish the mechanism governing the effective removal of dilute suspensions in filter units . Previous clogged bed theories developed by Stein, Mints, Ornatskii, Heertjes, Mackrle, Ives, Robinson and Maroudas were discussed, and a general form of a clogged bed equation was derived . The newly derived equation were then used to fit the results of an experimental unit. The research concluded that the main filtration mechanism in deep filter bed is the attachment of particles onto the surface grains .
Presently specialists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB are taking an alternate methodology: they are assembling surfactants utilizing biotechnological techniques, with the aid of organisms and microbes. "We create bio surfactants microbially, taking into account manageable assets, for example, sugar and plant oil," says Suzanne Zibek, a specialized scientist and designer at the IGB in Stuttgart. The researcher and her group use cellobiose lipids (CL) and mannosy- lerythritol lipids (MEL) in light of the fact that testing has demonstrated these to be guaranteeing and effective enough for modern application. They are delivered in expansive amounts by specific sorts of filth organism, the kind that can influence corn plants.an included profit is