The factors affecting the rate of osmosis are temperature, concentration gradient, molecular size, surface area to volume ratio, and permeability. Animal liver cells, such as cow liver cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane. The nucleus contains the DNA, genetic material that controls the cell. The cytoplasm is where the processes take place and are controlled by enzymes. The
Discuss some of the common side effects experienced by patients receiving chemotherapy. The decision to receive chemotherapy involves consideration of the benefits and potential risks of treatment. Chemotherapy cause short term and long term side effects for the patient. Side effects occur as a result of damage to normal cells that divide frequently, examples include hair follicles, cells of the gastrointestinal tract and gonads. The side effects vary depending on the specific agents used in therapy, as well as the dose and the duration of treatment.
An important aspect of epidemiology is to carefully observe these variations in disease occurrence and then try to find out the reasons for these variations. This may lead to the understanding of the causal mechanisms involved in the disease process.
In these clinical studies8-10,22-23, differences in failure rates and contradictory results are noteworthy. Thus, direct comparison between studies testing identical materials should be interpreted with caution, as there is no standardized protocol for clinical studies. 24 In in vivo studies, socioeconomic and dental status of patients, and malocclusion classification and resultant mechanotherapy may affect the outcomes. Furthermore, masticatory forces varying with facial type, culturally influenced dietary habits, and sex differences may also influence the results. 4 The bond failure rate of green gloo found 5.00 % at the end of 24 months.
Since the 1700s, researchers have already been using statistical testing in search for answering many scientific or non-scientific questions (McLean & Ernest, 1998). From deciding a serious issue such as whether a patient needs a certain treatment, to a trivial matter such as deciding whether to buy a certain car or apartment, significant tests are used as a part of our decision’s making process. It provides us with conveniences and nurtures our quick decision-making process. It is so embroiled in our life that we seem to trust it so much without considering the significant errors it might have. There have been many ongoing debates by professionals from social sciences, researchers and doctors in deciding whether the abolishment of significance test is needed as it contains many controversies that are worthy to note (Lecoutre, Poitevineau & Lecoutre, 2005).
The most characteristic feature of the development in the methodology of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis during the past 25 years is that HPLC became undoubtedly the most important analytical method for identification and quantification of drugs, either in their active pharmaceutical ingredient or in their formulations during the process of their discovery, development and manufacturing[6-12]. (4)
The end-products might be useful tools to accomplish these improvements since they provide effective forms of education. Further studies should be conducted focusing on aspects like the influence of patient education in short-term diseases or in the prophylaxis of complications of diseases. In addition there is a necessity to research if there is a significant difference whether a physician or nurse provides the information. Moreover it is important, especially for the brochure, to determine the best setting to give information for example a waiting room, where patients can grab the information themselves or actively being consulted by the physician, to optimize the effect of educational
They think the level of risks increase on patients especially because the one who are conducting the trials are the same as the ones who are being experimented. But what these people don’t know is that these ethical concepts are no longer acceptable. Nowadays researches won’t be conducted unless the participants are fully aware of the potential risks that they might encounter and they should be informed of the kind of treatment they will receive. Another important point is that the researcher should of course focus on making the experiment work no matter what, but his duty falls in the first place on taking care of the patients regardless the medical
• It was a one-time data collection requiring 30-40 minutes per patient. Data Analysis Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis of data. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentages) were used to describe the clinical and demographic variables of study participants. The determinants of medication adherence were analyzed using Chi-Square test and Independent Student T Test. Pilot
These complications can possibly translate into morbidities and mortalities. Appropriate nutrition therapy depends on accurate determination of energy expenditure. Critically ill patients may have altered metabolism due to their diseases and the use of multiple medications, causing great difficulties in estimating their energy expenditures. Indirect calorimetry is