Pinna The external ear comprises of pinna and external auditory canal. The elastic fibrocartilage forms the body of the pinna and is covered by skin which is attached loosely on its medial surface. This cartilage is avascular and derives its nutrition from the perichondrium. A unique pattern on the lateral surface of the pinna makes it characteristic for each individual and comprises of helix, antihelix, triangular fossa, scaphoid fossa, concha, tragus, antitragus, intertragic notch and lobule. The narrow gap between the anterior crux of helix and tragus is deficient of cartilage and comprises of dense fibrous tissue, known as incisura terminalis.
Poor oxygen saturation relative to FiO2 and crepitation are secondary to pulmonary congestion and oedema. Backwards cardiac effects increase hydrostatic pressure, causing fluid filtration into the lungs, resulting in impaired alveolar gas exchange and oedema in the lung. Thus, causing reduced oxygen saturation and crepitation as alveoli pop open after being collapsed by oedema (Murray,
Stratum Lucidum III. Stratum Granulosum IV. Stratum Spinosum V. Stratum Basale 1.2.2. Dermis It is middle layer which contain connective tissue, sweat gland, hair follicles, collagen, blood vessels, nerves and various glands. Function of dermis layer is to provide strength, elasticity and to cushion the body stress and strain.
As it is the part of the eye that is responsible for central vision, sufferers therefore lose their ability to use their central vision. There are two types of AMD; Dry AMD and Wet AMD. Dry AMD develops when there is a build-up of waste products called drusen. A build-up of these waste products result in the damage of light cells of the macular leaving you with blurry central vision. Wet AMD however is a more severe case of AMD which develops due to abnormal blood vessels growing under the macular, believed to be caused because of a misguided attempt to clear the waste products.
Macular representation occupies the posterior part of visual cortex near occipital pole.  EFFECTS OF LESION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VISUAL PATHWAY: Injury to any part of optic pathway causes visual defect and the nature of defect depends upon the location and extent of injury. Loss of vision in one visual field is known as anopia. Loss of vision in one half of visual field is called hemianopia.  Effects of Lesion of Visual Cortex: Lesion of upper or lower part of visual cortex leads to inferior or superior homonymous hemianopia.
This nucleus consists of multiple neuron and have many subdivisions. The fibres first pass in a dorsomedial direction and then loop over the abducent nerve and produce a small round swelling in the floor of the 4th ventricle. The superior salivary and lacrimatory nuclei of the facial nerve are also present in the lower half of the of pons. These nuclei are small collections of cholinergic nerve cells in dorso-lateral reticular formation. The neuron of these two nuclei seems to be intermingled with each other.
Irritants If you notice redness, swelling, and slight bleeding when flossing or brushing, this could be a sign of a gum problem. If you have these symptoms constantly, it’s possible you have gingivitis, which is caused by bacterial infections. Irritated gum tissue can often bleed during flossing or brushing, or simply by applying pressure; if left untreated, it’s possible to lose teeth. 2. Receding Gums Another sign of a gum problem is if your gums have started to pull away from your teeth.
Cystic Fibrosis Could you Imagine what it would be like if you had a disorder that clogged and blocked the passageways in your body? Well there is a disease that does this very same thing, and it’s called Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes your body to produce a thick and sticky mucus. No, the disease isn’t the mucus being produced, it’s the mucus being thick and sticky. This mucus is supposed to be thin and watery, so it can act like a lubricant and help protect your bodies organs and passageways.
1.3. Oral mucosa 1.3.1. Anatomy and histology The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria (Nanci and Elsevier, 2013). At the lips the oral mucosa is continuous with the skin, and at pharynx the oral mucosa is continuous with the moist mucosa lining the rest of the gut. thus the oral mucosa is located anatomically between skin and gastrointestinal mucosa (Nanci,2008).
In the classic nomenclature(28) the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum is divided into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe (Fig 2 and 3), by two deep fissures known as the primary fissure between the anterior and posterior lobes and the posterolateral fissure between the tonsil and flocculonodular lobe(24,25). The anterior lobe is bound anteriorly by superior medullary velum and posteriorly by the primary fissure. The vermis and hemispheres in the anterior lobe are further divided into lobules by two fissures namely precentral fissure and the preculminate fissure. The vermis is divided into three lobules namely lingula, central lobule and culmen. Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus.
Specific Characteristics : Crohn’s most commonly affects the end of the small bowel and the beginning of the colon, but it may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Crohn’s disease can also affect the entire thickness of the bowel wall. The inflammation of the intestine can skip,leaving normal areas in the bowel between patches of diseased intestine. Causes: The cause of Crohn 's disease is unknown. However, it is likely due to an abnormal response of the immune system.
One of the most common disease that affects the respiratory system is asthma. Asthma is a long duration disease that diminishes the airways of your lungs. It makes you have further difficulty breathing. The cause of the disease is not known. Researchers consider that some of the causes for asthma could be inherited or the environment could also have been something that affects your lungs and made it hard for you to breathe.