For example, the incidence of sicknesses was a mean of 2 sicknesses per neonate. The case fatality in 13 sicknesses was also more than 10%. Only 2.6% neonates were seen or treated by a physician, and 0.4% was hospitalized. Hypothermia, fever, upper respiratory symptoms, umbilical, and skin infections, and conjunctivitis showed statistically significant seasonal variation. Although the sicknesses were concentrated in the first week of life, new cases continued to appear throughout the neonatal period.
The most commonly reported resistance is to clindamycin, with resistance rates between 3.2% and 14%, depending on the tested bacterial strain [68, 82]. Other reports have documented infectious progression despite actinomycin D treatment . Although antibiotic regimens differ depending on treatment team, various susceptibility testing suggests prominent responses to metronidazole, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, penicillin, gentamicin or cefoxitin [82, 83]. Table 4 illustrates the optimal antibiotic
Relapses occur in 20% of patients followed-up for 5 years. The persistent mild interstitial lung disease and the high relapse rates in TPE have suggested that repeated monthly courses of DEC at 2 – 3 monthly intervals for a period of 1–2 years may be useful. As steroids were found to be effective in the treatment of TPE, a controlled clinical trial is needed to establish the optimum dose and duration of DEC therapy (with or without steroids), and to prevent the development of interstitial lung disease(2,
1. Background Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent licensed as a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis in patients with moderate to severe illness or recent exposure to azoles . Caspofungin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of (1,3)-β-D-glucan of the fungal cell wall, ultimately causing cell death . The recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin is a loading dose of 70 mg followed by 50 mg daily (70/50 mg), administered intravenously over 1 h. Caspofungin is highly protein bound (~ 96%) and metabolizes slowly in the liver [3-5]. Its liver uptake is a biphasic process and its binding to the surface of hepatocytes is fast and reversible.
Infective keratitis rarely occurs in normal eyes without any predisposing factors. The ocular surface is normally protected from microbial invasion through an intricate biochemical and anatomic relationship between the cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal secretory apparatus and precorneal tear film, and the eye lids. Any disruption of the same may results in less effective defense against infection and such risk factors may vary with occupation. An association has been shown between the type of risk factor and the microbial aetiology for infection 5. Corneal injury due to vegetative matter predispose mainly to fungal keratitis, while use of contact lenses and other non-traumatic risk factors to bacterial keratitis6.
Stewart et. al (2013) stated, “conditions associated with a high risk for serious RSV disease include preterm birth (<35 weeks gestational age (wGA), chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD), immunodeficiency, and congenital abnormalities of the airways or neuromuscular disease” (p. 1). Methods Data Sources
Endocarditis or septic thrombophlebitis should be suspected if blood cultures remain positive for more than 48 hours after the device has been removed (Hovarth R et al., 2003). As per the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines, Trans Esophageal Echocardigraphy (TEE) should be done for patients with CRBSI who have persistent bacteremia or fungemia and/or fever 13 days after initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy and catheter removal; and any case of S. aureus CRBSI in which duration of therapy less than 4–6
As hepatitis B, hepatitis C can cause chronic liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Its symptoms take time may years to manifest, so a person who is chronically infected may not be aware of it. The common symptoms of HCV include: fatigue, Jaundice, abdominal pain, intermittent nausea & vomiting and loss of appetite. Furthermore, most of HCV infected people have dark urine. Until now days, the treatment of HCV is only marginally effective.
4.Nartey NO, Mosadomr HA, Al-Cailani M, Al-Mobeerik A. Local¬ized inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral cavity: clinico-patho¬logical study of 164 cases. Saudi Dent J. 1994;6(3):145-50. 5.Jafarzadeh H, Sanatkhani M, Mohtasham N. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a review. Journal of oral science.2006;48(4):167-75.
It is common among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, Candida albicans. As mentioned, Candida albicans is a normal commensalism of the oral cavity but overgrowth of Candida, however, can lead to local discomfort, an altered taste sensation, dysphagia from oesophageal overgrowth resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay. In immunocompromised patients, infection can spread through the bloodstream or upper gastrointestinal tract leading to severe infection with significant morbidity and mortality.