Otitis Media Case Study

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Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) Protein D, Diphtheria or Tetanus Toxoid Conjugates) in Prevention of Acute Otitis Media in Children: A Cohort Study

Trixy G. Chu, M.D.
Department of Pediatrics
University of Santo Tomas Hospital

Daniel Rafael R. Cachola III, M.D
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
University of Santo Tomas

Mary Agnes S. Regal, M.D., DPPS
Department of Pediatrics
University of Santo Tomas Hospital

Agnes Cecille G. Llamas, M.D., DPPS
Department of Pediatrics
University of Santo Tomas Hospital

Norberto V. Martinez, M.D., FPSOHNS
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
University of Santo Tomas

Wilfredo R. Santos, M.D., DPPS
Department of Pediatrics
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In developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) attributes 51,000 deaths per year, in children under five years old, to otitis media. In Philippine General Hospital (PGH), acute otitis media constitutes 0.9% of ENT-OPD consults. (Magiba-Caro, et al., 2006). By three years of age, 75–80% of children will have had at least one episode, with the peak incidence occurring before the age of two years. (Grevers, 2010). Acute otitis media (AOM) is clinically defined as an inflammation of the middle ear with rapid onset of signs and symptoms of less than 3 weeks duration. (Magiba-Caro, et al., 2006) Most cases of AOM resolve spontaneously in less than 3 or 4 weeks, but a selected population will develop recurrent and severe disease. (Brouwer, et al.,…show more content…
The etiological agent, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Differences in the composition of this capsule permit serological differentiation between about 90 capsular types, some of which are frequently associated with pneumococcal disease, others rarely. Invasive pneumococcal infections include pneumonia, meningitis and febrile bacteremia; among the common non-invasive manifestations are otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis. Vaccination is the only available tool to prevent pneumococcal disease. The recent development of widespread microbial resistance to essential antibiotics underlines the urgent need for more efficient prevention through pneumococcal

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