Paul Tillich, born in 1886 was born in Germany, and was rather conservative in politics, as indicated by his involvement in ‘Wingolf.’ However, in 1914 Tillich became a Chaplain in the German army for World War I, and his experiences on the frontlines shaped his views towards more socialist ideas, later putting him at odds with the Nazi party. By 1933, Tillich left Germany and joined the Union Theological Seminary in New York where he would go to publish The Courage to Be. The Courage to Be was written post World War II, after a devastating and pointless war rooted in vengeance for World War I and rampant nationalism. In wake of events such as the Holocaust, it could be argued that humanity is hopeless and meaningless. These events caused existential dread and the rise of existentialism.
In fact, it only encouraged Germany to create further problems and eventually start World War II (WWII) - a battle that Britain had to fight in Europe and over her own skies as well. This pre-WWII British policy is often referred to as appeasement. Essentially, in the late 1930s, the British government rubber stamped several annexations and territorial conquests in central Europe by the German government under Adolf Hitler. There were two main motivating factors behind this policy: the idea that what Hitler was asking for was reasonable and the British government and society wanting terribly to avoid another war. The first of these policies stemmed from Hitler 's fascist regime 's stated goal of unifying all German speakers in central Europe under the German flag.
United States entering World War 2 was the turning point of the war for the Allies. The Allies were being bomb by air and losing on every front of the war, from England to Africa and beyond. The United States wanted to stay neutral and did so for the first 2 years of the war. The United States used economic sanctions on Japan to try and deter their aggression in Asia and the Pacific. They supplied Britain, Soviet Union and China with war materials and even deployed troops to Iceland, relieving Britain soldiers.
During world war 2 the whole world was shocked by the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact which was a neutrality act that prevented two of the most feared dictators in the world, Hitler from Germany and Stalin from the USSR, to attack each other and ally or aid an enemy of the other nation throughout the continuation of the war. The pact was signed in Moscow on August 23, 1939 by ministers of foreign affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop representing Germany and Vyacheslav Molotov representing the USSR. The pact ended in June 22, 1941 after the disastrous invasion of Russia codenamed operation Barbarossa in which Hitler’s army was defeated by the Russian winter resulting in the Germans loss of momentum causing Hitler to become the military general
Although the theory of evolution caused a stir on its own, what was most important to the Nature versus Nurture debate was the idea of our species changing over time. The idea of Natural Selection also contributed tot he debate. The phrase ‘Nature versus Nurture’ was coined by English Polymath, Francis Galton in his 1874 publication of English Men in Science: Their Nature and Nurture. Galton was Darwin’s cousin and he said in his biography that ‘The publication in 1859 of the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin made a marked epoch in my own mental development, as it did in that of human thought generally.’ At the point of publication Galton had been a medical student, a naturalist, anthropologist and an explorer but from 1865 onwards Galton dedicated his life to the study of Eugenics. In 1869 Galton published his own controversial work Hereditary Genius.
These three coalitions and Russia's reaction to the system emphasized the disagreement of the European nations to the Napoleonic Empire. On the other hand, Napoleon's reign also brought a sense of nationalism. The Confederation of Rhine, which was Napoleon's reorganization of German states, stirred the German nationalism. Napoleon unified the German principalities under the French rule in a way that he used these states provide him with soldiers and supplies for his wars and because of this, the Confederation stimulated the German desire for unification. Napoleon also
Stalin stayed in Moscow as the German army marched on, ordering his men to destroy anything of value that may benefit their enemy. The tide of war changed for the Soviets at the Battle of Stalingrad. At the battle, the Red Army defeated the Nazis and eventually drove them from Russia. Stalin would go on to attend the meetings of the Allied Powers, and would become a loyal ally. Stalin still planned to expand the Soviet Empire after the war.
He wanted to unify the north German states under Prussian control. Furthermore, weaken Prussia’s main rival, Austria, by removing it from the Bund. He also wanted to make Berlin the center of German affairs. Lastly, he intended on strengthening the position of the King of Prussia, William I, to counter the demands for reform from the Liberals in the Prussian parliament (the Reichstag). Prussia had become the most industrialised state in Germany.
Germany became a modern, unified nation under the leadership of the man known as the “Iron Chancellor” Otto von Bismarck, who between 1862 and 1890 effectively ruled first Prussia and eventually came to rule all of Germany. A master of strategy, he initiated well planned wars with several countries such as France to unite independent German states under Prussian leadership. Although he was an arch conservative, Bismarck introduced progressive reforms including the establishment of the first welfare state so that he could achieve his goals. He manipulated European rivalries to make Germany a world power, but in the process, he laid the basis for both World Wars. Another one of the countries most involved in Nationalism, and with one of the greatest impacts was Italy.
Joseph Stalin had also used communism while Mussolini used fascism. While totalitarianism did create a united state, we need to study totalitarianism to prevent it from happening again because it causes many problems, extreme conflict, and it can lead to wars. Fascism first began in the 19th century. Fascism is a form
Adolf Hitler made many changes making Germany dystopian, such as creating a new government. Even though Hitler was thought to be Germany’s hero, he was dictator. He had controlled the country by having SS troops all over the country. He also killed anyone who did not agree with him or the Nazi Party. Before becoming the Leader of Germany, Adolf hitler had a vision for Germany that he thought would be great that would led them into utopia.