Arguing “Political and economic models were borrowed from the West to replace the Islamic political and economic systems after independence from colonial rulers in the mid-twentieth century, creating overcrowded cities lacking social support systems, high unemployment, government corruption, and a growing gap between rich and poor. Rather than leading to a better quality of life, Westernization led to the breakdown of traditional family, religious, and social values. Many Muslims blame Western models of political and economic development as the sources of moral decline and spiritual malaise” (Religion of Islam). This is just a short list of the many problems the Islamic world faced because of European Colonialism. Theorists needed to find solutions and the two new streams that emerged each had their own pros and cons.
The law did more than just change the appearance of people; it also changed different aspects of society. Using a form of modernization theory provided by (Lerner / Tipps), this paper will evaluate the aspects of the nation building process in Turkey that were affected by the Hat Law of 1925. Using background information and research through journal articles, discussions regarding secularism, class structure, and westernization will be built in order to show the relationship and the effect of the Hat Law of 1925 on the nation building process in Turkey. II. Background a.
Edward Gibbon, The author of the decline in the fall of the Roman Empire, displays a different argument that yes discredits my thesis but is still an interesting and still very credible way of placing the fall of Rome on internal factors. Yet after reading this sources it did not further my understanding of the external problem but only question my research on the tax revenue or lack thereof hurting the ultimate power to control its borders. Considering that it was more of a social troubling with in the Empire itself rather than external problems which now after reading would explain a lot of the reasoning behind Civil War 's within the Roman state.61 another source that had a similar outlook on what Gibbon was trying to get a crossed in his book, was the Spanish priest Orosius, which puts the blame of the decline on perhaps the change from pagan to Christianity.21 along with going after religion, The example of outsourcing duties to defend the outer front tears to foreigners was considered a very internal problem in disagreement among Romans. However I do agree with Gibbon but the source just does not hold up any my
The introduction of Tocqueville in the Ottoman Empire by Ariel Salzmann is an application of the concepts that Tocqueville has developed such as Ancien Régime to understand the semblance between pre revolutionary France and the Ottoman old regime . Tocqueville questions why did France cohere and the Ottoman Empire fall apart if their policies and institutional patterns were similar in character and close in timing ? Hence Tocqueville haunts the social scientific imagination of the Ottoman past as he uses comparison study to make sense of political change and the regimes in transition now that the Ottoman Studies have begun to overcome their isolated methodological frame of reference. To do so Salzmann promotes circulating analytical concepts as well as seeks to construct interpretations derived from current state of Ottoman historiography while reexamining the paradoxes that obliterate the past and remain as obstacles to understand modern political paths. In my opinion the study which Salzmann presents focuses mainly on the fiscal governance and she could have included different functions of the old regime and the eruption of modernity .
Khilafat movement was a religious-political movement launched by Muslims of the British India for the retention of the Ottoman caliphate or Khilafat-e-usmania and not for letting for the Muslims holy places goes under the control of non Muslims. During the First World War turkey sided with Germany and as Germany started to lose turkey also started losing its territory. By the first time world war came to an end in 1918 turkey had lost most of it territory, therefore the issue at that time was how the allied power would treat turkey, the ottoman empire or the Khilafat e usmania and most of its territory had been occupied and this movement was on its peak from 1919 to 1922, although it went on during the letter years. Being brothers the Indian
The Chinese ruling class was instead opposed to the reform in China. The conservatives worried that changes in the reform will threaten themselves and weakened their power. The Hundred Days’ Reform is a great demonstration of how the power struggle resist the reform in China. The reform was short-lived, changes in political, social and military, economic system were proposed but were merely in paper due to opposition from the conservative Chinese official and the empress Cixi, who felt threatened by the changes, reformers backing the reform were then caught and executed. (Fairbank, Goldman, 1992) The reformation in China faced major opposition and thus the reform in China mainly focused in implementing western innovation and technology and little is changed in the more controversy political and legal
Concisely, both empires collapsed because of internal conflicts and external pressure. “One bad apple can the Bruch.” This became true, as both empires collapsed because of one imperfect leader. In addition, instead of working together, people of both empires started disdaining each other. After examining both empires, it brought me to a firm conclusion that the reason behind their collapse is because of their own contempt attitude against each other and with their
William Golding chose to express his anti-utopian views about humanity in Lord of the Flies. After the two World wars the world was shattered by its horrors. The elements of compassion, humanity, civilization seemed to be fast eroding from the face of earth. People during this period often blamed the political system of some nations who were responsible for the war. They failed to realize that it not any particular system that is responsible for the downfall of social order, instead the individual in power are the ones to be blamed.
Austerity is the cutting down of government spending in an attempt to rescue countries from states of budget deficits. Issues concerning the decision of many European governments to adopt austerity measures have been discussed all over the world in recent times. There has been much controversy as to whether austerity is a good thing or not. Many Keynesians with Paul Krugman at the front line have condemned European governments for adopting austerity measures. Counties like Greece have been cited as proof that austerity is a sheer evil and only leads to destruction.
First of all, accepting full blame for causing the war was difficult for them to do because they did not agree with the statement, but also, it tainted their reputation for the country as a whole. They knew it would make them appear untrustworthy and ignorant, which could really hurt them in the long run with trades and other economic factors. Also, paying that much money for reparations was just frightening in general. It was just such an excessively high number, so they had every right to worry about going bankrupt or just generally going into a huge debt. Army was more or less just a sign of pride and power.