There were various factors that led to decolonization in Africa particularly after the Second World War (WWII) when European countries generally lacked the wealth and political support necessary to suppress revolts in the colonies (Decolonization, 2015). Egypt was the first African country that gained independence in Africa on 28th February, 1922 from Britain. In sub-Saharan Africa however, Ghana was the first country to attain independence from Britain on 6th March, 1957 (Ghana’s Dubious Decolonization Distinction, 2015).
Africa is in fact filled with diverse culture and has an established civilizations with languages, customs, and spirit. Unlike in Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad depicts Africa as it is commonly stereotyped. He views Africa in the point of view of colonizing Europeans; a place that is primitive and deserted and lacks all aspects of a good-natured culture. Africans are portrayed as savages with animal-like features, who are thought of as less than the European. The prejudices made by the Europeans are evident throughout Conrad’s novel, however, two books have counteracted that idea and tried to prove the well developed society that exists all over Africa.
East and West Africa from 1000 to 1500 CE had profound differences in forms of government, with West Africa being kingdom based, and East Africa city-state based. The conversion of Eastern and Western African ruling elites compacted trading between themselves and Islamic traders from Mesopotamia, China, India, and as far away as Oceania. The relatively stable political environment from 1000-1500 CE in Sub-Saharan Africa attracted displaced peoples from the Abbasid empire in Northern Africa, with West Africa utilizing Trans-Saharan trade, and East Africa utilizing mariner trade routes. The East and West developed in clearly different ways, but paralleled each other in a way in which the political, social, and economic environments facilitated stable trade in the region, as well as a distinct blend between Islamic culture and African tradition. The primary difference in the political organization of both East and West African from 1000-1500 CE comes in the form of government.
For example, McWhorter talks about in the late 1800’s, in southern Sudan, slaves that spoke many different languages were put into “occupying Turco-Egyptian armies” that were under Arabic-speaking leaders. Arabic was used by soldiers to communicate with one another, while on plantations, Arabic was at first a pidgin variety that soon expanded into a form of creole. McWhorter says,”Expelled from the country by nationalist forces, these soldiers were resettled permanently to Uganda and Kenya, where their descendants still speak this creole Arabic called Nubi, Unintelligible to speakers of Arabic
Imperialism was an age where countries expanded into new continents and territories for military, economic and religious purposes. The idea of Social Darwinism spread which was originally introduced by Charles Darwin. However, Europeans interpreted his theory of natural selection as an idea that they had to civilize the uncivilized, which turned out to be Africa and Asia. They formed three types of governing bodies in different areas, colonies, protectorates, and spheres of influence, each doing something slightly different but all with the same idea, civilize the uncivilized. In Africa, it was viewed that the natives were uncivilized people; how they ate and spoke were signs to the Europeans that the African people were uneducated.
Firstly via Christopher Columbus himself in his journal. According to the renowned American historian and linguist Leo Weiner of Howard University in Weiner’s book, “Africa and the Discovery of America,” he explains that Columbus noted in his journal that the Native Americans confirmed “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.”Thus this entry into Columbus’s journal showed that he was fully aware that people had discovered the Americas before him. Columbus was not the only explorer to make note of the presence of the Africa upon their arrival into the new world explorers such as Vasco Nunez de Balboa, also made record of seeing “Negroes” when they reached the New World. The most prominent evidence of the presence of West African would be the presence of the pyramids in Central America mainly in Mexico .when we speak about pyramids we
General Purpose: To inform my audience about African historic culture) Specific Purpose: To inform my audience on the ancient Benin (Benin) culture and how it has evolved today Attention Getter: Did you know that everyone evolved from Africa? Researchers have examined the differences of the skulls and DNA of human remains from around the globe say their outcomes indicate present day people (Homo sapiens) having a solitary beginning in Africa. (Owen,2007) Preview your main point: Having said that, today, they're are hundreds of different tribes in Nigeria, where they all speak different languages & have different customs. However out of all those tribes the Bini tribe is the most ancient and well known (Gascoigne, 2001) Thesis: Today I will be informing you on some interesting facts about the history of Benin tribe, the invasion and how it has ultimately changed today. Transition: The Benin kingdom is
An imperialist government may want to acquire a territory to gain additional sources of inextensive labor and raw materials. By the 1800’s, there were intense rivalries among the European nations as they skated claims to parts of Africa. This race to expand European colonial influence is often referred to by historians as the “Scramble for Africa.” An imperialist government may want to acquire a territory to gain additional sources of inextensive labor and raw materials (Vontz, “Imperialism”).Industrialized nations can produce more manufactured goods than their people need or can afford to buy (Vontz, “Imperialism”). Motives for the colonization of Africa were that European interest in Africa began growing from the 1400’s as European nations acquired the military and technological capacities for overseas voyages and conquests (Klemm,
Introduction Anthropology is said to be a study of humanity across time and space i.e how humans adapt to different environments, interact, socialize and behave. Homo erectus is an important focus of the study of humanity (human evolution) primarily because, it is said to be the first species to be found outside Africa and presented many anatomical features that happen to imitate evolution towards the pattern seen in homo sapiens, like brain size and parts of the skeleton below the head. This assignment focuses on Homo erectus by looking at the archeological record to discuss the relationship between biology and tool making and how they both outplay through cultural and cognitive development in the genus homo. Background history Homo erectus
This movie was released in 1950, a delicate period for African countries. Trying to fight for decolonization after having been divided by western countries for their human and natural resources, this continent was not much acknowledged. The first thing to note is that at this specific time, after having discovered the mysterious continent and its inhabitants, the world had a very “savage” view of Africa and its people. “Native” Africans were more seen as uncivilized animals than actual humans with a different culture and history. This movie shows us how the contact between westerners and Africans was established but most importantly exposes a problematic view of Africa that is still present today in most of western societies.
For the period 500 BCE to 1200 CE, the societies of Africa and the societies of Americas both developed primarily in isolation. The geography of these regions and environmental variations created great distance between the emerging civilizations within the two continents. For example, In Africa the civilization of Axum, located on the horn of Africa, emerged with ties to Arabia. The proximity to the Red Sea linked Axum with Egypt and subsequently Christianity. This civilization had a monarch political system, built monuments, and even developed a written language.
Chapter 1: Diamond’s first attempt at answering Yali’s question begins with another question: did some continents have a head start in civilization over others? The beginning of civilization is traced back to the ape species in Africa about 7 million years ago. They divergence from apes to humans took place from then to the end of the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago. This could have set Africa “ahead” of the other continents. Another major component is when the humans would develop germs, guns, and steel.
Soon the FOXP2 gene was found and isolated as a key factor in speech. With this gene being in the Neandertal it is believed that they shared speech just like our H. Sapien ancestors. What this genetic research has found is that neither the Out-of-Africa model nor the Multiregional Continuity model adequately explains modern humans’ origins. While the Out-of-Africa model correctly accounts for the origin of modern human variation of H. sapiens a gene flow between Neandertals and modern H. sapiens did occur and Neandertals did contribute to the H. sapiens’ genetic pool. This evidence supports the theory that both models explain the emergence and evolution of the fully modern society we have today.
In History of Africa, Shillington focuses on many aspects of African culture and factors that made Africa to be the continent that it is today. Chapter 5 primarily focuses on the Northern region of Africa and how empires took over and spread their ideology technology, and culture all through out the region. Even today some remnants of the Roman and Greek empire live on to this day (Shillington, 69.) Despite many people getting the impression that Northern Africa is only influenced by Arabic and Islam, these empires and their conquests are best understood through topics like intricate trading routes, farming, and the spread of religion. Shillington provides an in depth analysis of how many of these conquests affected Northern Africa centuries ago and today.