Freud's psychosexual theory of development For Freud, childhood experiences shape our personalities and behavior as adults. Freud viewed development as discontinuous; he believed that each of us must pass through a series of stages during childhood and that if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage. According to Freud, children’s pleasure-seeking urges are focused on a different area of the body, called an erogenous zone, at each of the five stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Each stage is characterised by different demands for sexual gratification and different ways of achieving that gratification. In the oral stage (0-1 years of age) a new
Id, is the ferocious drives that may approximate to the biological component. Psychosexual development is the central component of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages which are, the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital. Each stage is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido on a different area of the body, as a person grows physically, certain areas of their body becomes important as sources of potential frustration, pleasure or both. (McLeod.S, 2008) The ego attempts to intercede between the id and the phenomenon of risks posed by the id’s desire.
PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT This is an assignment given in Adolescence and Learning to explore Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory of development. This theory describes how the personality is developed over the course of childhood through various fixations at each stage. The five stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Each of the psychosexual stages is associated with a particular conflict that must be resolved before the individual can successfully advance to the next stage (McLeod, 2008). According to Freud, a person who successfully completes these stages forms a successful and healthy personality whereas if certain conflicts are not resolved at the appropriate stage fixations occurs which result in failure
Literary Review Definition and History Birth order contributes to why the children in the same family develop different personality traits and relationship statuses (Badger and Reddy 46). More broadly, birth order affects children mainly in two ways; “de-identification” or “social learning”. De-identification, discovered by the scientist Alfred Adler, is a process in which the child, usually later borns, exerts themselves to become different from other children, usually to gain parental attention. Inversely, social learning occurs when younger siblings imitate or model older siblings. In this case, the younger sibling will acknowledge the older sibling’s success and healthy parent- child relationship and duplicate his/her behavior expecting
Ego is associated with the intervene in the agreement among them with the need of the reality. Superego is a kind of approach to follow the order and systems of the parents and the society. Psycho dynamic theory basically talks about the childhood endurances that forms the personality of a child. It is also related to the psychoanalytic which is a therapy the tries to disclose the unconscious feelings and wishes. Assumptions of the Psychodynamic theory are as follows :- The most prominent factors responsible for the human behaviour work at the unconscious level.
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development Beginning with the Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Development, this theory was created to explain human development relating to how the mind works. Sigmund Freud 's theory of psychosexual development is based on the idea that parents play a crucial role in managing their children 's sexual and
Erikson’s second stage of development is called “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt”, where Freud describes it as the “Anal Stage”. Erikson’s second stage occurs between the ages of one to three and compares it with how well a caregiver permits a child to exercise her or his will, and in providing the freedom in order for the child to make choices regarding his or her own life (Boeree, 2006). In stage two, Erikson demonstrated how a child is challenging the boundaries, in order for them to see the effect that it can have on their life (Boeree, 2006). This is the time where the parents or caregivers have to walk a tightrope when it comes to granting the child with enough space in order for them to make decisions and to investigate on their own. If the parents are over protective and denies the child their own will, doubt and shame may develop causing nervousness and problems when it comes to initiating actions (Boeree, 2006).
Freud’s theories on ID, ego and superego and also the “libido” like the science calls it, have made a massive boom. Freud has written three lectures in his theory of sexuality: The Sexual Aberrations, Infantile Sexuality and The Transformation of Puberty. For his first essay, Freud begun to write about distinguishing between the sexual object and the sexual aim. The first is the desired object and the second one is what acts are desired. Here are also used the terms pedophilia and bestiality, which are sexual feelings toward children and animals.
Sexual Identity In “Gender Socialization and Identity Theory” by Michael J. Carter, he asserts gender identity originates with the family. The writer maintains that families are the agents of identity socialization. Carter argues that beginning with infancy children are taught how they are expected to socialize primarily by their families, simply due to the continuous contact with one another, boys are dressed in blue while girls are dressed in pink. The author plainly elucidates children gain knowledge of homophily through playmates by self-segregation into homogeneous groups. Through his psychoanalytic theory the writer respectfully expounds males identify with masculinity by not behaving as their female caretakers act.
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional