In fact, they are the most effective influence for their children. Parents can affect their children’s development Infants and Childhood development !5 based on various factors which primarily include: direct interaction, emotional identification, and family stories. Direct interaction, which is the easiest way to communicate with children, involves praising or rewarding the children for doing something good or punishing them in case they did an undesirable action as well as the transferring knowledge. (11) For example, if the children asked for a candy in a polite way, they will get praised for it and rewarded as a consequence. However, if they yelled and asked in a rude way, they would be punished for their bad behavior.
Adler believed that each person strives to belong and want to feel significant. Adler’s psychology places its emphasis on a person’s ability to adapt to feelings of inability and inferiority relative to others. He believed that a person will be more responsive and cooperative when he or she is positively encouraged and when shown feelings of competence and respect. In the other hand, when a person is hindered and discouraged, will display counterproductive behaviors that present competition, defeat, and retraction. Adler believed strongly that “a misbehaving child is a discouraged child,” and that children’s behavior patterns improve most significantly when they are filled with feelings of acceptance, significance, and respect.
The presentation of moral issues at this stage is concentrated with the rewards and punishments after the occurrence of their action. This stage is commonly exercised of children ages 4 to 10. In this stage, they follow the rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards. Some adolescents and adults remain at this level to gain their rewards and to satisfy their needs (Steinberg, 2002). The conventional moral reasoning stage, it is characterized by one’s social conformity to norms and standards as basis of behavior.
As breaking the rules tends to lead to negative personal consequences, most children follow the rules as a way to avoid being punished. The above is part of an article entitled `Moral Development` by Angela Oswalt, MSW. Written in June 2010, on mentalhelp.net Summary of Piaget`s Theory. The morality of 5-9-year olds is: `Heteronomous`. This means that it is subject to another`s laws or rules.
Therefore, however you encourage or praise children it must builds their self-esteem and confident not break it down. On the other hand, over praise can actually lower children self-esteem and make them the more competitive and less cooperative. Children who are praise tent to do things to please adults, not because they are motivated themselves but because they want to please others. Encouragement and praise teaches children to evaluate themselves on their own. This is because when adult provide children with feedback about what they are dong, the children learn to evaluate themselves without comparing their effort and success to those of others.
His theory is helpful for child development and adults too. The five Erikson’s stages of development are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, competency vs. inferiority and the last one is identity vs. role confusion. Freud and Erik’s theories have some similarities and differences in some stages of development. In the first stage of Freud’s theory he says oral stage is the weaning process where the child must become less independent upon caretakers. At the stage of 1st year Eric says it’s the stage of trust vs. mistrust.
Moral autonomy is a skill and habit of thinking ethical problems in a balanced manner. These ethical issues are to be found out on the basis of moral problems. These general responsiveness of moral values are derived only from the training what we have received as a child with response to the sensitive and right of others and ourselves. Suppose the guidance is not given in the childhood, then those children may be ill-treated or ignored by the society. In future these children may grow up with lack of senses on moral issues and they become as sociopaths.
According to Kohlberg these development can be influenced by several factors. Based on Kohlberg’s research on young children he found out that children are faced with different moral issues, and their judgements on whether they are to act positively or negatively over each dilemma are heavily influenced by several factors. (Sincero, 2012) This theory consist of different stages of moral development. The Pre-moral stage is where the child follow rules and obedience to rules are the most important part of moral correctness. The theory of obeying rules is to avoid punishment.
When a child experiences structure, a child feels more secure, and with security, becomes a good mental focus, and therefore encourages children to learn and progress. Negative behaviours are also less likely to occur when a child is in a structured environment, as their minds are kept busy and each child feels stimulated. This amongst good relationships helps
In terms of educators’ use of corporal punishment, it is possible that this behaviour is learned through modelling and is maintained because punishment (presentation of an aversive event) is successful in getting students to stop misbehaviour (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman). Also of concern is whether the corporal punishment behaviour of educators is instrumental (for the purpose of obtaining the goal of correcting child misbehaviour) or expressive aggression which is also called emotional spanking (impulsive, in that educators use corporal punishment with little forethought and control) (Straus & Mouradin, 1998). Behavioural theories also propose that behaviour is a powerful influence on attitudes, and that the most effective way to help people change is to target behavioural changes as opposed to thought changes (Myers, 1999; Thomlison & Thomlison, 1996). This theory is applied in the area of corporal punishment in that most of the interventions geared toward changing corporal punishment, teaching new classroom management strategies to educators, as well as presenting new