He insisted that Spinoza’s “Substance” must be interpreted wholly in terms of spirit. The opposition of subject and object is the real counterpart of the logical structure of thought. A = A, A ≠ non-A, can be given content by letting A be the Ego. The Ego = Ego, and Ego ≠ non– Ego. (And if you understand that, you’re a better man than I am!)
The Cartesian axiom declares that there is as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as the objective reality of the idea itself. Spinoza debunks the idea with his axioms of powers: “The power of Thought to think about or to comprehend things, is not greater than the power of Nature to exist and to act.” Spinoza’s emphasis on power in the Short Treatise and the Correction of the Understanding has proven a thorough argument. He expounds his thought in an array of syllogisms, they can be encapsulated in the following: The more reality something has, the more existence it involves. The possible existence Descartes proposes has finite degrees of perfection while necessary existence has infinite perfection. Whatever has the power
If any single thesis could be said to constitute the doctrine of existentialism, it would be that the possibility of choice is the central fact of human nature. Even the thesis that existence precedes essence often means no more than that people do not have fixed natures that limit or determine their choices, but rather it is their choices that bring whatever nature they have into being (Borchert, et al.,
The fact that synthetic a priori knowledge is known by us suggests that important truths can be known by the pure reason. However, rationalist metaphysics was not followed by the author Immanuel Kant in asserting that pure reason has the influence to take hold of the mysteries of the world. Instead, the author suggests that whatever we perceives in mind shapes the reality. As per author the mind do not inactively receive information provided by the senses. Instead, it actively shapes and makes sense of that information.
Behaviourist Approach Behaviourism was founded by John B Watson. It says that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour. He told that psychologists shouldn’t study consciousness altogether and should focus exclusively on behaviours that could observed directly.Behaviour referred to any kind of observable response or activity by an organism. Behaviourism views organisms as controlled by by the environment in which it is present and specifically that we are the result of what we hve learned from our environment. It denies the existence of organisms learning or acquiring any kind of trait or character through genetic inheritance.
Epistemological Theories Epistemology begin when philosophers shifted from asking what is reality to asking the question of how we can be sure of reality. According to Lawhead, each epistemological theory theories goal is to answer three questions: Is knowledge possible, does reason provide us with reason of the world independently of experience, and deos our knowledge represent reality as it really is? (pg 208). Empiricism is what made up many of the first epistemological arguments. Empiricism is the claim that sense experience is the sole source of our knowledge.
That is, our feelings of nature are properly designed and therefore ought to be heeded. Kant’s belief of ethics might be seen as an over-arching design and order of nature. The third illustration considers the issue of developing one’s talents. Nature endows us with aptitudes that are intended for a given purpose, which Kant implies, are valid in an appropriate system of nature. Like the antecedent moralists, Kant appeals to the teleology of nature.
Inner source of information is one’s personal perception on things, while outer sources are represented by nature and physical state of things. Through the information that we receive either from inner or outer sources, we as human beings, have clear image of something named ideas. It is so, because Descartes believed that people would not have random ideas
This Island easily exists in the intellect, but when Gaunilo would be asked to accept that this island exists in reality, without a doubt, Gaunilo would think them the fool. This objection is slightly unsatisfying, as Gaunilo only provides us with a different analogy of Anselm’s first argument, and does not give us an explanation as to where it goes