Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
Instead of using a simple benzene derivative as a reactant, the substrate being used is ferrocene, which consists of a central iron atom bounded or sandwiched between two cyclopentadienyl rings. This synthesis also involves greener reagents. As stated above, aluminum chloride is often used as a strong Lewis acid catalyst to start the reaction. However, it is corrosive and can give off considerable quantities of acidic and toxic wastes. Since ferrocene is highly reactive (due to its two cyclopentadienyl rings), AlCl3 can be replaced with a more benign catalyst, phosphoric acid.
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
The most upfield of the carbons was at a PPM of 48 and belonged to the methyl carbon at the end of the ether substituent. A range of four carbon peaks falling between PPMs of 120-130 represented the benzyl compound of the methyl benzoate product. In part two of the lab methyl benzoate was subjected to a nitration resulting in the formation of methyl-3-nitrobenzoate. The purpose of part two was to add a nitrogen group to methyl benzoate by means of an electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) reaction. An EAS reaction pertains to the substitution of an aromatic hydrogen for an electrophile by means of an electrophilic attack on the aromatic ring which in this case is benzene.
Solubility matters since organic compounds tend to not be soluble in aqueous solvents, but ionic salts do easily dissolve in water. And acidity matters since we can adjust the base strength to only react with one component of Excedrin at a time, allowing for the components to be isolated. By adding a 1M solution of a basic salt, like K2HPO4 or KOH, to organic compounds, we could convert the organic components of Excedrin into ionic salt that will dissolve in aqueous solvents. Next, by adding a strong acid, like HCl, the Excedrin component is protonated causing a decrease in solubility leading to the component precipitating out of the solution and crystallizing. Acid-base extraction offers a method to separate the active components of Excedrin based on acidity and what bases they will react with.
The principal product in this case is R-Nuc. In such reactions, the nucleophile is usually electrically neutral or negatively charged, whereas the substrate is typically neutral or positively charged. An example of Nucleophilic substitution is the hydrolysis of an alkyl bromide, R-Br, under basic conditions, where the attacking nucleophile is the base OH− and the leaving group is Br−. R-Br + OH− → R-OH + Br− Nucleophilic substitution reactions are commonplace in organic chemistry, and they can be broadly categorized as taking place at a carbon of a saturated aliphatic compound carbon or (less often) at an aromatic or other
1. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal with an atomic number of 12 and an atomic mass of 24.305. It is part of the second group of elements on the periodic table located on the far left side of the periodic table. *CAUTION* Magnesium is a flammable metal! The equation for the reaction that is going to happen is: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid —> Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) --> MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) This reaction is an Oxidation-reduction.
If carbocations rearrange during the intermediate phase, the product obtained will be a partial racemic mixture, where the maximum amount of product reflects the most stable carbocation intermediate thru rearrangement. Due to the relative stability of the carbocation, only tertiary alkyl halides can perform SN1 reactions, as shown below. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols can react through substitution but only with hydrobromic acid (HBr), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydroiodic acid (HI) because they are good nucleophiles (electron rich atoms). Based on the experiment’s chemical equation: 2-methylcyclohexanol 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexanol 1-bromo-2-methylcyclohexanol (3o alkyl halide) (2o alkyl halide) The goal of the experiment was to alter a secondary alcohol to isomeric alkyl halides through SN1 dehydration synthesis with hydrobromic acid. Based on the chemical equation, products obtained were 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexanol (thru 1,2-hydride shift rearrangement) and 1-bromo-2-methylcyclohexanol (no rearrangement).
INTRODUCTION Figure 1: Molecular Structure of PET PET (or PETE) is also known as polyethylene terephthalate or (C10H8O4)n. Its natural state is a colorless, semi-crystalline resin when combined with other materials like glass fiber or carbon nanotubes, it increases the material’s strength. Polyethylene terephthalate melts at 260°C and Amorphous density (at 25oC) is 1.33 g/cm3. PET can be produced by 2 different reactions as a product of polymerization. The first reaction is between ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid. The second one is the reaction of ethylene glycol with dimethyl terephthalate in acid catalyst.
This involves the removal of hydrogen and its transfer to a hydrogen carrier molecule (NAD) to form reduced NAD. Each pyruvic acid yields 2 molecules of ATP in the process of its creation. The 2 reduced NAD made goes to the electron transport chain and the 2 molecules of pyruvate goes into the link reaction which is the next stage. The link reaction connects glycolysis to the Kreb’s cycle. The pyruvate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to produce C02 and H+ which is used to reduce NAD.