Insulin, a polypeptide hormone, is one of the most important pancreatic islets, more specifically the islets of Langerhans(named after the scientist who discover them) produced by the beta cells. These cells( beta cells) are mainly responsible for extracting glucose from each carbohydrates and help the body to either use it or store it for later use. Insulin plays a vital role in regulating blood glucose level by preventing it from getting too high(hyperglycemia). Glucose is the main source of energy in the body and all cells of the body need an adequate amount of glucose to function properly. However, this sugar(glucose) cannot penetrate most body cells by simple diffusion (i.e. skeletal and cardiac muscle, and adipose tissue).
Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
Bob, a 52 year old Hispanic male with type II diabetes mellitus. He sells insurance in Loveland, CO. Bob was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes as a result of blood tests that were performed due to a heart condition known as Atrial Fibrillation. At the time of diagnosis he weighed 320 pounds, he was 6’1’, with a BMI of 42.01. He was classified as level 3 obesity. He denies being excessively hungry or thirsty.
Arsenate can replace inorganic phosphate in step 6 of glycolysis that produces 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phospahte. This yields 1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate instead, which is unstable and quickly hydrolyzes, forming the next intermediate in the pathway, 3-phosphoglycerate. This is the same product that is normally formed in step 7. This is a problem because the product forms before it should and therefore does not reach the enzyme so the energy released cannot be harvested to generated ATP. Arsenate wastes energy by the uncoupling phosphotransfer reaction so its very POISONOUS.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
The other serious problems like hypertension, arterial diseases, lipid disorders or even heart disease are also linked to diabetes . There are two types of diabetes which include; a) Type 1 Diabetes and b) Type 2 Diabetes. The reason for Type 1 diabetes is inability to produce insulin in body while that of Type 2 is insufficient production of insulin or inability of the body cell to recognize insulin. Diabetes is called as a lifelong disease as inability to produce insulin or insufficient production leads to high levels of glucose in blood.
Body temperature this is controlled to keep up the temperature at which proteins work best, which is 37°C. Body temperature is controlled by controlling blood stream to the skin sweating shivering. The body 's water content this is controlled to secure cells by preventing an excessive amount of water from entering or abandoning them. Water substance is controlled by water misfortune from: the lungs when we breathe out the skin by sweating the body, in pee created by the
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. Insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range.
REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIA LATENT DIABETES Reactive hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that occurs after eating during the day and makes the people crave for sugar, chocolate, sweets or snacks. After eating carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index, first, the blood sugar increases quickly, and your body secretes insulin hormone. Since the insulin, after two hours, drops your blood sugar lower than the normal rate, following symptoms are observed together with fatigue; carving for food, trembling, sweating, starving, etc. This is called as reactive hypoglycemia.
Insulin lowers the blood glucose level if it becomes too high whereas glucagon raises the blood glucose level if it becomes dangerously low. Too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia because the liver produces less glucose and the cells of the body absorb more glucose. Too much glucagon results in too much glucose in the bloodstream because it is not absorbed by the cells and can result in high blood sugar. Not enough insulin causes a rise in the blood glucose level because the glucose remains in the bloodstream. Not enough glucagon results in dangerously low blood glucose levels
In order to lose weight you have to eat well. Following a diet consisting of fresh, whole foods is the best way to go. Eating clean is super simple and has a wonderful impact on the body. Whole foods like lean protein, complex carbohydrates and healthy fats make it easy to eat less without feeling deprived. These foods are slowly digested which prolongs satiety and are packed with nutrients.
Thinking about low carb diets? Wondering if you should try one to lose weight? Or maybe you 're just wondering what 's the big deal? Low carbohydrate diets have been around for years, in one form or another.
Carbohydrates include a little bit of sugar with your body is just for energy and nutrients to maintain a good health. There are many ways to treat Type 2 diabetes. One is that you have to eat a lot of healthy foods. So that means you could only have fast food once in awhile. According to Mayo Clinic You have to take your insulin pen after you eat a meal or snack.
One of the most important things you want to do in order to burn fat fast is keep your metabolism up. So finding a fat burning diet that is able to do this will be the key to your success. Unfortunately there are millions of people out there who try to lose weight quick and end up failing because they restrict too many calories. You may fall into this category, and there are many reasons for it.