A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom.
Mass is anything that takes up space. Mass is made up of small subatomic particles called atoms. Atoms have three main parts electrons, protons, and neutrons. The mass of the atom is found in the nucleus. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass cannot be created nor destroyed, and that the mass of the reactants will be equal to the mass of the products. This means that no matter what, the mass of the reactants when mixed together should be equal to their original masses. A chemical reaction changes one or more substances to be transformed into (a) new substance(s). A physical change is the change in somethings appearance. Chemical changes can be identified by its interaction with other substances.
The different possible substrates for avocado catechol oxidase have very different Km’s and Vmax’s (Table 1). The Km’s range from 0.7 to 95, and the Vmax’s range from 0.58 x 105 to 17 x 105. The enzyme’s own substrates catechol has a Km of 6.5 and a Vmax of 5.4 x 105. Some of the substrates are better suited for catechol oxidase than others. For example, dopamine has a Km of 95 and a Vmax of 11 x 105. Both of these values are fairly high and would not make an effective substrate for catechol oxidase since the enzyme has a low affinity for the substrate. An example of a good alternative substrate would be 4-methylcatechol that has a low Km of 1.1 and a Vmax of 3.4 x 105. The enzyme now has a high affinity for the substrate and therefore requires less substrate to meet its Vmax.
Radioactively labeled FLC (3H-FLC), (481 GBa/mmol, 13 Ci/mmol, 1 µCi/µL; 77 µM FLC) was custom synthesized by Amersham Biosciences. The drug concentration used during the import assay was well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the strain (M. oryzae FLC MIC >32 µg/ml).
Many of our most important enzyms, hormones, and chemical process are all made possible by the presence of protiens. We can build protiens in our bodies or injest them in the food we eat. Tryptophane and tyrosine were some protein amino side chains that we specifically identified in the lab. Some everyday foods that contain high contents of tryptophane are egg whites, fish, and seeds. While some common foods that are high in tyrosine are cheese, milk, and tofu. The samples experimented on in the lab also had contents of tryptophane and tyrosine. The skim, 2% milk and the powdered protein contained both Tryptophane and tryrosine while the Gelatin contained Tyrosine. To see the specific amounts per 100grams, refer to Table 2 in the results section.
What type of chemical reaction will a balloon receive when filled with an acid and base? Acids and bases are around us everywhere in various types of liquids. They are in the foods we eat and the things we use on a daily basis, for example liquid dishwashing soap. Acids are
The intermolecular interactions in the N-methylformamide with acetophenone, cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone) binary liquid systems are studied in combined experimental and computational methodology. The speed of sound (u), density (ρ) and viscosity ( ) values are measured for binary mixtures of N-methylformamide with ketones over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures T= (303.15 to 318.15) K, at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental results, the values of excess molar volume ( ), excess isentropic compressibility (κsE), deviation in viscosity (η) and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow ( ) are evaluated. The experimental results indicate the intermolecular association between the binary liquid
Epoxides (or oxiranes) are highly versatile intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Nature also uses them as intermediates in many key biosynthetic pathways. However, there are other functions of epoxides in biological systems. They can impart localised structural rigidity, confer cytotoxicity by alkylation, or be secondary metabolites . The chemistry of epoxides is dominated by the reactions that involve opening of the strained three-membered heterocyclic ring by nucleophiles. Such reactions yield valuable bifunctional compounds. In nature, epoxide ring opening is catalysed by the phenolic proton of a tyrosine moiety . But in laboratory, the cleavage usually occurs in non-aqueous media in presence of a Lewis acid catalyst like Al2O3, Li+, Mg2+ etc. Additionally often elevated temperature and excess of nucleophiles are required. There are a few reports where use of a catalyst has not been necessary [3,4]. For example, aminolysis of epoxide by an -amino acid ester proceeds smoothly in refluxing trifluoroethanol . The same reactions fail in water. In contrast, aliphatic and aromatic amines are found to cleave an epoxide ring in water at room temperature without any Lewis acid catalyst . Herein we report opening of an epoxide group present in a chelate ring of a metal complex by aromatic amines
Introduction Proteins are a type of macromolecule that is essential for living organisms as they have various structural, functional, and biochemical purposes. They are used for structural support, enabling organisms to move, catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting materials and regulating cellular processes (Purcell, 2016). Proteins are composed of distinct amino acids that
Studies have demonstrated that most chemical reactions in our body require enzymes in order to perform their function. Without the enzymes these reaction will act too slow too keep us alive. The process of food digestion, repairing tissues, organs and cells, all of these require enzymes in order to function and do their job. Enzymes, are biological catalysts that carry out the thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells and are considered to be generally large proteins made up of several hundreds amino acids (Enzyme Action Lab). A catalyst is an agent that speeds up chemical reaction by lowering its energy. Each enzyme is specific for a certain reaction due to the special 3D structure of its amino acid sequence. This laboratory
Three ecological varients that have different carbon dioxide incorporation mechanism have evolved during evolution that are C3, C4 and CAM plants. There is no net carbon dioxide assimilation until carbon dioxide during respiration is fully compensated by photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. The supply of carbon dioxide to the chloroplast occurs through diffusion process.
Gelantin consists of glycine and proline. Nowadays, people do not consume these amino acids as they are found in organs, bones and fibrous tissues. These parts are rarely found on our dinner plates. On the other side, these amino acids are essential for our well being. They are useful for weight regulation, good skin condition, proper function of the immune system and growth of the nails and the hair.
In this experiment I will be testing the effect that different solutions (oil, soap, alcohol, salt and sugar will have on the membrane of cherries. In plant cells one type of membrane bound vacuole is the tonoplast ( it is quiet large and contains water). However in cherries this vacuole
Plants are the main source of food and medicine of humans since the times of ancient throughout the world. Many synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) are known to have side effects causing liver damage. The expensive treatments, adverse effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to existing drugs have forced us to look back into nature as a resource for therapeutics to a wide variety of human ailments. Therefore there is a need for isolation and characterization of natural antioxidant having fewer side effects which can be used in foods or medicinal materials to replace damage causing synthetic antioxidants .