8. Balanced chemical equation for the formation of zinc chloride from zinc and HCl First, we set up the equation xZn(s) + yHCl(aq) → ZnxCly (s) + y/2H2(g) . We knew the empirical formula for zinc chloride is ZnCl8. Based on the law of conservation of matter, we got the balanced equation: Balanced equation: Zn(s) + 8 HCl(aq) → ZnCl8 (s) + 4 H2 (g) 9. Percentage Error Calculation: Experimental values: (1.8+4.34)/2= 3.07g (average mass) Accepted values: 2.67g ZnCl8 0.5g Zn x 1mol Zn/65.4g Zn x 1/1 x 349.4g ZnCl8/ 1 ZnCl8 mol = 2.67g ZnCl8 l 3.07g-2.67gl / 2.67 x 100 = 14 % B Copper Sulfide Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 1.Mass of crucible, cover and copper 22.82g 21.04g 22.87g 2.Mass of crucible and cover 20.91g 20.61g 21.49g 3.Mass of
Borrelidin, until recently, has been extracted through common traditional methods. These methods depend on the physicochemical properties of the drug, like size, solubility and polarity. Moreover, full purification using these methods requires multiple steps of separation, concentration and analysis to be achieved. This often yields a low percentage of the drug due to significant loss with other components as well as sample degradation. In general, the concept of chromatography is to separate compounds in a mixture, where there is a stationary phase and a mobile phase.
According to the simulated NMR spectra of CA, TA and saccharin by ACD-ilab software (34), hydroxyl functional groups of them have a single peak at ~10 ppm which in is upfield to ~6 ppm in ionized from whenever the first carboxylic acids was converted to carboxylate (COO−). In SAC, disappearance of a single peak at 8.1 ppm of saccharin confirm ionization of 1,2-benzisothiazole ring of SAC. CVD has no peak in the studied regions (8 ppm and ~6 ppm for ionized form of SAC and studied carboxylic acid, respectively). Similar spectra (Figure S1 in supplementary information) of CVD-CA and CVD-TA show the appearance of a peak at ~6 ppm. It established the ionization of the first carboxylic acid of CA and TA and salt formation.
Chapter 7 Results 7. RESULTS 7.1 PREFORMULATION STUDY 7.1.1 Organoleptic Characteristics Organoleptic Characteristics was visually determined which was compliance with the standard. Table 7: Organoleptic characteristic of naproxen Sr.no Properties Standard Observed 1 Appearance White crystalline White crystalline 2 Odor Odorless Odorless 43 Taste Bitter Bitter 7.1.2 Melting Point of Naproxen Melting point was determined by Thiele?s tube method. Melting point of naproxen was found to be in the range of 154?C which was in compliance with the official value. 7.1.3 Solubility of Naproxen Solubility of naproxen in different
Long duration of heating will loosen the bond between central atom and ligands. Characteristic of acetone is to increase the formation of complex. There is error in the acetone provided thus causing the adding steps of acetone to dissolve all the complex formed in the experiment. Sodium acetate trihydrate, as a base in this experiment, causing acetylacetone to lose a proton to form acetylacetone anion, acac-. Manganese has wide range of oxidation state from +7 to -1, however, in aqueous solution, manganese with +2 oxidation state is most stable and common.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
purified through preparative LC as described above and finally characterized as phloretin and phloridzin (Fig. 1). Compound 1 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one or phlorizin was obtained as amorphous powder, mp 2620C. The UV/Visible spectrum of the compound showed λmax at 225 and 285 nm. ESI–MS m/z 297 [M+Na]+ in positive ion mode and 273 [M-H] in negative ion mode for molecular formula C15H14O5; 274.
According to O’connor et al, 2001, the salt formation confirmed by the absence of the carbonyl peak at 1684 cm-1. In LAG of DFA-PRO, there was a peak of free carboxylic acid at 1683 cm-1. Aakeroy et al 2011, also stated that if original neutral diclofenac acid has been converted into a carboxylate moiety, COO-, will be appeared in IR spectrum below 1675 cm-1. Thus, this analysis was proved a cocrystal formation from DFA-PRO, not a salt formation. However, the determination of its exact structure, still be investigated recent with a single-crystal analysis.
6. EXCIPIENT PROFILE Polyplasdone XL : Synonyms: Crospovidone, Cross-linked povidone, PVPP, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone. Functional Category: Tablet disintegrant. Applications: It is a water insoluble tablet disintegrant used at 2-5 % concentration in tablets prepared by direct compression or wet & dry granulation method. Description: White to creamy-white, finely divided, free- flowing, practically tasteless, odorless or nearly odorless, hygroscopic powder.
A. INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION Metronidazole is 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole B.P. It appears as a white to brownish cream crystalline substance with melting point 159-162C. Solubility in water at 20C is 1g/100mL; in ethyl alcohol, 0.5g/100mL; in chloroform, 0.4g/100mL; slightly soluble in ether and soluble in dilute acids. When reconstituted as Metronidazole IV for Infusion, it has a pH of between 4.8 and 5.2.