Gobe and team used AuI or AuIII complexes for the synthesis of pentacyclic indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines from N-allyl tryptamines and ortho-alkynylarylaldehydes(36). They performed this reaction following the novel work done by Adithi Danda et al for the development of a catalytic two-step reaction sequence to access a range of complex heterocyclic frameworks based on biorelevant indole/oxindole scaffolds using Au(1) complex as a catalyst(37). They initiated their study by establishing the suitable catalytic system for the Pictet–Spengler gold-catalyzed cyclization onepot process (Scheme 16). To this aim, N-allyl tryptamine 70 and aldehyde 71 were reacted in the presence of catalytic amounts of diphenyl phosphate (DPP, 5 mol%), to ensure catalysis of the Pictet–Spengler reaction and various catalyst 72 in dichloroethane at
This kind of Staphylococcus aureus is called “MRSA”, referred to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This bacteria are multi-resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, meaning that they are resistant to different kinds of antibiotics, such as penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin and cephalosporin. As the process goes, that normal Staphylococcus aureus are being killed by penicillin antibiotic, and the ones that are resistant survived and keep on reproducing, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that is penicillin resistant spread in the community and its amount kept on increasing. This made natural selection to occur, which the bacteria that are antibiotic resistance are suitable ones and they survived in
Cytotoxic assay Cytotoxicity is described as the quality of being toxic to cells. The technique is used to measuring dead cell protease activity, in which they have lost membrane integrity. There are several ways used to measuring cytotoxicity, but generally involved in the assessment of cell membrane integrity. Vital dyes such as propidium iodide or trypan blue can be used to estimate the membrane integrity by measuring the ATP content or protease biomarker with the MTT redox potential assay. Many of these assays are involved in colorimetric or fluorescence detection.
2.3. Mechanistic studies: Heme binding studies Chloroquine and other quinoline derivatives are believed to show their antimalarial activity by inhibition of hemozoin formation within the parasite food vacuole . Hemozoin was originally considered to be formed by the polymerization of heme , but it has now been demonstrated that it is a crystalline cyclic dimer of ferriprotoporphyrin IX . It is widely accepted that CQ accumulates in the plasmodium food vacuole and binds to some form of parasite heme/hematin, and inhibits hematin polymerization [52-55]. This is a non-enzymatic process in which hematin monomer (heme) released from parasite hemoglobin digestion is converted into hemozoin, also known as malaria pigment.
Azithromycin works by killing bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis and as well treat oral Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections caused by bacteria. It is usually prescribed in a single, large dose, however, the dose may also be spread out over five days depending on the severity of the infection. Azithromycin is available as an oral tablet, oral suspension, extended release oral suspension, eye drop or intravenous form. • Doxycycline. This is a prescription drug that works by blocking a bacterial protein from being formed.
Inducing Prodigiosin Transposon mutagenesis in Serratia Marcescens Introduction Serratia Marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, mainly of healthcare facilities but can also be found in many diverse environments. Serratia is a gram negative bacteria which can give it innate resistance to certain antibiotics, especially those that target peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis, due to its outer membrane. In an environment with different microorganisms competing for food Serratia holds a component that gives it another selective advantage. The bacteria contains a red pigment called prodigiosin, that has antibacterial, antifungal, and even antiprotozoal activity. The pigment is produced due to quorum sensing of bacteria, when an appropriate level of N-hex anoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL),
INTRODUCTION Gentamicin, which is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic (Fig. 1), belongs to the class of medicinal compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria . Gentamicin is one of the most effective drugs used in the treatment of serious suppurative and septic processes, especially those that are caused by Gram-negative microorganisms. The advantages of gentamicin over other aminoglycosides (kanamycin, neomycin) are its activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa and microorganisms of the Serratia–Klebsiella–Enterobacter group, a faster bactericidal effect, and the rare development of gentamicin resistant strains. Several methods used for determination of GT including colorimetric [2,3], amperometric enzyme-immunosensors , flow injection chemiluminescence , spectrofluorometry [6,7], capillary electrophoresis with UV detection , liquid chromatography (LC) [9–14] and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [15–23].
It also affects the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, thereforereducing superoxide toxic radical formation, chemotaxis, oxygen-derived free radical generation and neutral protease production(Mahgoub, 2002). According to a report from an experimental animal models, diclofenac suppress inflammation induced by various phlogistic agents(Al-Tuwaijri and Mustafa, 1992). Other side effects may include gastrointestinal disorders when administered by oral route andcutaneous lesions by intramuscular injection (Lopes et al., 2006;
In this experiment, the antimicrobial properties of the powdered forms of three widely used Indian spices: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian Lilac/Neem (Azadirachta indica), Ginger (Zinhiber officinale), Asafetida (Gumm oleoresin) was further investigated. They were compared to the antibiotics Ampicillin and Erythromycin to test whether natural remedies can provide efficient counterparts to pharmaceutical drugs. Two bacterial strains- E. coli and Probiotics (mixture of “good” bacteria) were utilized to understand the effect of antibiotics and natural treatments on ‘bad’ and ‘good’
Cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and hyperhidrosis are conditions for which Botox treatment is approved. Botox treatment works by blocking signals that cause muscles to spasm. Relief comes with the relaxation of the affected muscles. The active ingredient in Botox, which is an injectable medication, is a neurotoxin called botulinum toxin type A. This neurotoxin is produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
However, there are now strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin, such as vancomycin intermediate staph aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant staph aureus (VRSA). This led to the development and use of a penicillinase resistant beta-lactam antibiotic, including oxacillin and flucloxacillin. Combination therapy with gentamicin can also be used to treat more serious infections, but it can have a high risk of kidney