To calculate RMSd we used PTRAJ from the AMBER package and then we compared the conformation of the enzyme after the simulations at the 0.1 ps interval.  2.8.2. The Hydrogen Bond Analysis Hydrogen bonds formed between residues of the protease and between residues and water molecules, were analyzed using PTRAJ. Only bonds with a distance less than 3.5 Å with the angle of interaction greater than 140 ° were considered. The output file gave us the results which hydrogen bonds were formed, with which occupancy, distance and angle.
In part 2, using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme, identified the inhibitor (75 mM phenylalanine) as an uncompetitive inhibitor. This is because Vmax and Km decrease when the inhibitor is added (7). The function of reversible, uncompetitive inhibitors is the removal of the enzyme substrate complex from circulation. This is done by the reaction creating an enzyme-substrate-inhibitor complex. An example of a common drug that is a noncompetitive inhibitor is the herbicide, Roundup.
Antibacterial activity of marine sponges The sponge Aurora globostellata was found to have antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholarae, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the biological activity has been tested with the crude extract and the inhibition zone observed with the crude extract were (12.66±0.66 mm) for Candida albicans, (14.00±0.57) for Salmonella typhi (K.Chairman et al., 2012). The strains of different fouling bacteria namely, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Pseudomonas putida , Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus were tested against different marine sponges for antibacterial activity with the crude extract. The sponge Oceanapia fistulosa and Fasciospongia cavernosa showed high inhibition zone against the strains, whereas the sponge Aurora globostellata was found to be with low activity when compared with other sponge types (Limna Mol VP et al., 2010). The sponge Callyspongia subarmegera found in the south coast of India taxonomically identified using spicules arrangement and taxonomic keys by Dr.P.A.Thomas and the partial DNA sequence of the sponge has been submitted to GenBank. The sponge has been extracted with methanol and tested for antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, and the extract was found to inhibit bacterial growth (Aishwarya MS et al.,
The peak observed in FTIR at 1560 cm-1, which is attributed to the deformation mode of amino group in APS forming hydrogen bond with silanol, confirm this observation. The grafting of surface modified nano-silica particles on the ramie fiber introduced a nano-scale fiber surface roughness . A schematic representations of ramie fiber treated with silane/nano-silica are shown in Fig. 6a and
ABSTRACT NRC-04, a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from skin mucous secretions of flat fish winter flounder, shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In order to understand the conformational change of NRC-04 in different types of membrane, our team did experiments on NRC-04 with negatively charged bacterial surface membrane mimetic micelles sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS), zwitterionic eukaryotic middle membrane mimetic micelles dodecylphosphocholine(DPC), gram-negative bacteria outer membrane mimetic micelles Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and bacterial inner membrane mimetic micelles 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol(POPG). Fluorescence test shows that the C-terminus tryptophan residue of NRC-04 interacts with the hydrophobic
In vitro susceptibility tests are done by the following methods: 1) Agar diffusion method 2) Tube dilution method 3) Micro-dilution method 4.3.2 Protocol: Synthesized compounds were assessed for their antibacterial activity using Agar diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of the compounds was carried out against pathogenic bacterial strains namely E.Coli: ATCC 50992 (Gram-ve), Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 29213 (Gram+ve), Pseudomonas aureginosa: ATCC 27853 (Gram+ve), Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 10231(Gram- ve). The antibacterial activity of the compounds was determined by observing the zone of inhibition in the comparison to standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin. Test compounds were dissolved in the DMSO to make a stock solution of 1000 ppm (1mg dissolved in 1ml DMSO). The fresh subculture of strains in the normal saline was added to the sterile assay medium (Nutrient agar) at 40-45°C and mixed well.
RESEARCH PLAN Biofilm Inhibition of Chitosan/Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit Hydrogel Film on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomnas aeruginosa A. RATIONALE Biofilm is a commonly found multicellular structure in bacteria where cells are attached to each other and embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (Archer, Mazaitis, Costerton, Leid, Powers and Shirtliff, 2011) making it more resistant to antifungal drugs because of its complex structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) (Fanning and Mitchell, 2012). Also, presence of persister cells shuts down the microbial targets of the antibiotics that leads to chronic disease (Archer et al., 2011). Biofilm is the cause of resistance against antimicrobial agents and it protects cells from the host immune
Preparations made from milk thistle have been approved by the German Commission E to treat mild gastrointestinal dysfunctions22,24. 7-Colon/Small Intestine. Kim and coworkers (1994) documented that silymarin and silybin are inhibitors of β-glucuronidases of intestinal bacteria, human feces, and rat microsomal fraction. Silymarin significantly inhibited the number of 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumors in male rats12. 8-Sken :- Results from various experiments suggest that silymarin could be a promising chemopreventive and safe phytochemical that could be tested against skin cancer in humans, as well as a potential ingredient for sunscreens for protection against UV radiation.22 The people who suffer form psoriasis, Milk Thistle also helps to balance certain cellular chemicals in the skin which determine the rate in which skin cells are reproduced.
Antibacterial activity of root and stem extracts of Leptadenia pyrotechnica on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes Munesh Kumar, Minakshi Lalit, Rajesh Thakur* Department of Bio and Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana – 125001. India. * Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The in vitro antibacterial activity of Leptadenia pyrotechnica root and stem extracts was studied against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes by using agar-well diffusion method. Methanol was used as solvent for preparation of extracts. Both plant parts effectively inhibited the growth of both the pathogens; however, more activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumoniae.