McClure et al. (2008) studied habitat loss of anadromous salmonids because of dam building in west of United States. They found that habitat area declined and changing habitat distribution caused evolution in population of salmonids because of decline and changes in genetic variation. Smaller habitat cause smaller populations, leading to genetic drift. Spawning
Invasive species alone, have a stronger negative affect on biodiversity than forest clearing, disease and pollution combined. For example, the Nile perch is a species of fish that was introduced to Lake Victoria as another resource for food. This new non-native fish quickly became a devastating predator and has eliminated over one hundred species of fish. The Nile perch was able to do this because they reproduced rapidly and they could out compete native fish for habitat and food. Invasive species are aggressive species that can control a newly introduced ecosystem by spreading quickly and taking over the
How the oceans may die is crucial to understand in order for them to be preserved for the survival of the planet. Numerous human activities generate a staggering amount of grave complications for the oceans and its crucial marine life. One of the most direct human activities that causes rapid decline in marine populations is overfishing. Some of the species
Certain species have a huge impact to an ecosystem, but even the smallest fish could have the biggest impact. Overfishing occurs when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction (overfishing). The results not only affect the balance of life in the oceans, but could also affect the coastal areas that depend on fish for their way of life. For centuries, our seas and oceans seem to be considered a limitless food supply. But that is not the case, increasing fishing efforts over the last fifty years as well as unjustifiable fishing practices are pushing many fish stocks to the point of extinction.
They break down dead biological matter and waste products and convert them into useable energy; returning important materials to the environment. Decomposers are a particular important feature in the Great Barrier Reef considering the heavy bio-load. Main decomposers inside the reef include bacteria, sea cucumbers, some species of snails, crabs and bristle worms. Bacteria sis not only vital for the Great Barrier Reef’s food web, but is also said by scientists that it could be the key to keeping the coral healthy and able to withstand the impacts of global warming. Dr Tracy Ainsworth stated “it is very likely that these microorganisms play a vital role in the capacity of coral to recovering from bouts of bleaching caused by rising temperatures.” Corals rely on these good bacteria’s crucially although we don’t yet understand these microbe’s ell enough to know how they influence coral survival, which is vital in maintaining the food web of the Great Barrier Reef.
According to Ackerman (2017)The levels of energy (lipids and proteins) that the fish has amassed during its time out in the open ocean also correlate to the distance that the fish have to migrate back up freshwater to reach their spawning grounds. This means that they need to feed more for this process to successfully happen and the open ocean provides the perfect feeding ground for fish their size. After all as Jonsson and Jonsson (2007) state, age of first sexual maturation is influenced by the growth rate at sea, where a higher growth rate means an earlier return to the river to
If human being consumes these contaminated organisms, toxic compound will be accumulated in human body. Deeper approach of natural science such as biomedicine is important related to marine contamination. Biomedicine knowledge particularly in anatomical, physiological, genetic and biochemical models are proven to be very useful to explain the impact of contamination in life organisms in marine ecosystem. Furthermore, it can also develop explanation about what kind of disease that might be created because of the toxic compound entering the food chain (Hansen, 2007). For example is the case of Minamata in Niigata prefecture, Japan, where heavy metals produced by chemical factories pollute marine area can enter the food chain and accumulate in marine organism and even human
To control the overfishing and growing industrial fishing market, in 1977 the Canadian Government introduced a 200 mile management zone but by that time most of the ecological damage had started. However, during this time other industries like resource-extraction failed, which put pressure on the fishing industry and even the government had to encourage more catching of fish for exports. However, as stocks of cod fish continued to drastically decline the government finally decided to ban cod fishing in 1992. Though the cod fishing industry boosted the Canadian economy and provided employment for local
The zooxanthellae, an algae that live in the tissues of corals and their source of food, leave their tissue if higher temperatures carry on for weeks. This causes the corals to turn white since it is the zooxanthellae that produces their color. ‘Bleached corals’ are the ones that are white and unhealthy which means they are weak and less able to fight disease. As climate change (higher or warmer water temperature) continues, bleaching will become more common and overall health of coral reefs will deteriorate. Across the Pacific Ocean, coral reefs are declining at a rate of about two percent a year, and it may be only 40 to 50 years before they’re completely gone.
Scientist’s observations in 1961 shows that the temperature of the global ocean has on average increased even at three thousand meters, as well as the observation that the ocean has been absorbing more than eighty percent of heat that is added in to the climate system which causes the sea levels to rise and creates an issue for the islands that are at sea level. The name ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH level of the earth’s oceans which causes their uptake of human activity carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, the oceans natural absorption of carbon dioxide helps decrease the climate effect of human activity with the carbon dioxide emissions which is believed in the decreasing pH level which makes the water acidic, then later has a negative effect on the oceans creatures which kills the coral reefs. “Coral bleaching occurs when the symbiosis between corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae breaks down, resulting in the loss of the symbionts and a rapid whitening of the coral host (thus the term "bleaching")” (The International Coral Reef Initiative). Coral bleaching is a stress response by the coral reefs which is caused by many reasons, but the most important and frequent cases is the rising sea
This tells us that a shift to lower age maturity may be predictable to increase the rebuilding rate of a population after the end of overfishing this is not always the case. Many of the young fish may see reduced fecundity, smaller eggs, shorter reproductive seasons, higher rates of skip spawning, and lower rates of offspring that will be able to survival compared to older larger females of the rockfish. This study exemplifies that fishers need to monitor the reproductive limitations of fish over time to help improve estimates number of fish that can be fished without hurting
These signs show that the bank systems are important for the FKNMS for providing a structural support and high productivity for the biodiversity. Exploitation of these essential fishes and pollution of the water could greatly destroy the bank systems and cause a rippling effect among the ecosystem. Knowing how important these bank systems are, they should receive additional protection through management zones. New management actions will help protect fish and stocks, to ensure the stability of recreational and commercial fisheries. To ensure a higher water quality and sustainable habitats, anchoring activities and vessel discharges will be restricted in the management zones.
The increasing temperature in the Columbia and Snake River Basin will provide less of a habitat range for the cold water species, sockeye salmon. The reason being that if the salmon were to attempt to inhabit these warmer waters the individuals that are unable to physiologically acclimate to these new temperature conditions will die; thus decreasing the relative abundance of the sockeye salmon’s population in these areas. The decrease in the amount of sockeye salmon will in-turn affect the communities and interactions of organisms living in the Columbia and Snake River Basin. b. With an initial population of 500,000 sockeye salmon and only 272,000 making it to the spawning grounds.
However, it 's not only just because of man-made reasons. The coastal marshes disappearing can also be affected by natural causes. Sediment is being deposited into a river delta increasing the weight, which causes the entire area to sink (p. 11). Depositing may sound like a positive cause, but however if the course of the sediment changes then no new sediment will continue to be deposited. Another natural cause is oceans and hurricanes.
It discusses how newer technology has been applied to improve the reverse osmosis process, by making it more efficient and cost-effective and increasing its capacity, than conventional reverse osmosis processes. From the economic analysis provided in the article, the new reverse osmosis process will increase the quality of the water (because a set of two membranes, each with ability to remove at least 90% of salts, arranged in series will be used), the amount of water treated and supplied will be increased, and the cost of energy required to push the water through the membranes will be reduced (because the plant’s design requires less pressure). Therefore new technologies can be used to increase the capacity of desalination plants, and reduce energy consumption and other associated