Painkillers Research Paper

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Painkillers are analgesic medications. They are available in different forms such as liquids, tablets, capsules, suppositories, creams and ointments. They can be taken by mouth, injection or via rectum. There are a lot of types of analgesics, and the main types are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids. NSAIDs which are used to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation. NSAIDs work to reduce prostaglandins………… Opioids are an artificial drugs have the same effect as the opiate on the body. Opioids have two categories semisynthetic and synthetic opioids drugs. The opioids drugs affect the brain by acting on the opioids receptors. After taking high doses of opioids, addiction occurs that the body gets used to it, and will not respond…show more content…
There are several types of painkillers some of them considered weak, in low doses, are available over the counter at a pharmacy, and others strong analgesics are only available by prescription. There are four ways to take painkillers either by mouth as liquids, tablets, capsules or via the back passage (rectum) as suppositories or by injections. Also, some of them available as creams or ointments. Painkillers are classified into two main types each one has its own enzymes and mechanism for working against the pain. They are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioid analgesics. The function of painkillers is to interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals that enhance the feeling of the pain. In addition to blocking the pain, painkillers also stimulate part of the brain which makes the patient euphoric. NSAIDs and paracetamol are used for pain that is caused by inflammation (2). Opioids are the strongest type of painkillers, for that they are used for severe…show more content…
They are synthetic drugs that have an effect on the body similar to the opiate, which is a natural drug such as morphine. There are two main groups of opioids drugs. The first group is the semisynthetic opioids are originated from the naturally opiate and opium alkaloids such as Hydromorphone, known as Dilaudid, contains morphine [ hydromorphone 1 Figure]. The second group is the synthetic opioids are fully artificial drugs from chemical substances other than alkaloids such as Methadone, known as Dolophine [ Methadone 2 Figure]. The structures of the semisynthetic and the synthetic opioids are necessary to determine the effectiveness for particular uses. The opioid drugs anlages the pain by acting on the receptors that are located on the neural cells, known as the opioids receptors which are mu, delta, and kappa. The opioids inhibit the release of neurotransmitters that have a significant influence on the nervous system. When the opioid binds to the receptor, the complex couples to the guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-protein). The G-protein will be active, and it will inhibit the release of the neurotransmitters by decreasing the Ca++ entry, enhancing k+, and inhibiting adenylate cyclase [Mechanism of opioids Figure 3]
The worst case scenario of pain killers is addiction, which happens when a person gets an extra dosage of a painkiller. A physical dependence occurs due to the body adaptation to the substance, so a person has
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