As for ACE inhibitors they serve to primarily relax the blood vessels. This substance will cause blood vessels to narrow and increase the blood pressure. The ACE inhibitors side effects often include lightheadedness, joint pain, or skin rashes. ACE inhibitors also have a common side effect of a really dry cough, which makes it hard for patients to speak. The third most common medication used for heart disease is Angiotensin Receptor Blockers which will help patients by lowering blood pressure and helping in preventing blood vessels from constricting (narrowing them).
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)
Some health problems it can treat are diseases that affect the immune system, inflammation, pain, seizures, substance use disorders, and mental disorders (Brain). Marijuana plants have hundreds of chemicals called cannabinoids. The two main chemicals are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD(cannabidiol). Researchers suggest that CBD may be helpful for some health issues, without getting high (Brain). The uses for medical marijuana are to help ease pain, nausea and loss
Antihistamines. Prescription antihistamine sprays such as azelastine and olopatadine Hcl help reduce symptoms of rhinitis. Side effects may occur, including headache, fatigue and bitter taste in the mouth. However, oral antihistamines like diphenhydramine and loratadine do not seem to work for non-allergic rhinitis. Oral decongestants.
EMG study: detects whether a nerve is impinged or not Treatment Medical management • OTC drugs: medicines that are safe to be take without prescription, if the pain is shooting/excruciating For example: ibuprofen, naproxen, etc • Narcotics drugs: to produce analgesic effect. Example: oxcodone • Nerve pain medication: pain relievers and anti depressants, to reduce nerve pain. Example: gabapentin, pregabalin, tradamol,
Loperamide is a potent Mu-opioid receptor agonist [13, 15] that acts on the myenteric plexus of the gut wall. It inhibits acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus and inhibits the peristalsis. It also increases the tone of anal sphincter. Loperamide also inhibits the secretions directly by interacting with calmodulin, this may be responsible for the anti diarrheal action.  Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy.
On the other hand, the activation of the opioid receptors widely represented in the myenteric plexus and the intestines may affect the gastro-intestinal tract physiological functions. In particular, morphine delays the transit time from the stomach to the intestine and reduces intestinal and pancreatic secretions. Due to these actions morphine present frequent and relevant gastro-intestinal side effects including constipation, ileus, and occasionally abdominal pain. Moreover, nausea and vomiting are also common side effects of morphine. The vomit mechanism is not well and completely understood; however, the interaction with μ receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and the vomiting center in
Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often effectively reduce people 's subjective experience of intense anger or anxiety. Use one of the major theories of emotion to account for the emotion-reducing effects of such tranquilizers. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining these effects? Why? The two factor theory could describe this because it would explain that you need physical arousal and can be to a cognitively label it.
Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
THC, which is found in marijuana, helps to regulate the part of the brain that causes fear and anxiety in the brain. • Marijuana has neuroprotective capabilities thus; it helps protect the brain from damage caused by stroke. It does this by lessening the affected area of the stroke. • Marijuana helps to reduce the side effects usually associated with chemotherapy. Side effects such as painful nausea, vomiting, tiredness, and loss of appetite are alleviated by medical marijuana use.
But like all strong prescriptions they have serious side effects. This is a stronger drug because it “makes part of your immune system overactive, so it attacks healthy tissue by mistake and weakens your immune response” (webmd.com). Immunosuppressive drugs are like corticosteroids, but they curve your immune system and
“One of the health risks involved with the use of steroids is the effect they have on the brain. Unlike some abusive drugs, steroids do not cause immediate effects on the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is responsible for the “high” one gets while using drugs for recreation. Long-term use of steroids, however, can result in disrupting some brain pathways and chemicals including dopamine and opioid systems. If this occurs then steroid users can develop aggression, which is where the term “roid-rage” comes from, along with other psychiatric problems, which scientists term as a “psychosomatic state” (Fahey, 1998). The heart is an area of major concern for steroid abusers.
Currently there are three medications, Teriflunomide, Fingolimod and Dimethyl Fumarate. While these medications offer the convenience of a pill they have considerable and potentially dangerous side effects. Teriflunomide (Aubagio) works by blocking the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which inhibit rapidly dividing cells like those of the immune system. Serious side effects include inability to fight infection, breathing problems and high blood pressure. Other side effects include: headache; diarrhea; nausea; hair thinning or loss; and abnormal liver test results.
Individuals who are intolerance to NSAIDS or cannot take the medications because of adverse effects may be prescribed opioid medications. These pharmacological treatments are effective in treating and managing the symptoms of Bouchard’s and Heberden’s nodes but due to potential drug abuse, limitations should be placed on opioid medications. Opioids should be prescribed at a low dosage and individuals on opioids should be monitored carefully to evaluate for potential dependence. Side effects for Opioids may cause chronic constipation and risk for falls for the elderly. Other pharmacologic treatments include meloxicam, ibuprofen, oxaprozin and sulindac.
Other medicines that are used are migraine medications. Imitrex is the most popular migraine medication. Imitrex is usually used to ease the severe headaches that come along with pseudotumor cerebri. This does not help fix pseudotumor cerebri it just relieves the pain from the headaches. Both glaucoma drugs and migraine medications can stop working.