Screening to separate the large contaminants from the water b. Coagulation to attract small contaminants c. Sedimentation where water sits and finishes coagulation d. Filtration to remove any small remaining contaminants and particles e. Disinfection by disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine to kill microorganism or remaining bacteria 2. Explain the differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment. a.
Catalase Test, in this test the microbial culture from Nutrient Agar plates were used. This test determines the production of catalase by the microorganisms. Catalase is an enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas thereby, protecting the microorganisms from the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide which is accumulated as an end product of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. (Bahrami-Hessari et. al.
Thimerosal is an organomercury compound primarily used in vaccines and antiseptic medications.Thimerosal’s oligodynamic effect is how the chemical prevents the growth of bacteria at a wound site, and prevents bacterial contamination when doses are drawn from a multidose vial. The structure of the chemical features two ligands (the thiolate and the ethyl group) attached to a Hg atom. The chemical has become the subject of much controversy after many media platforms have given a voice to the anti-vaxxer movement, which demands that the compound be placed on the national banned chemical list by the DPS (Department of Public Safety), due to fears of Thimerosal causing autism and other brain development disorders . This document was written
The aim of this experiment was to prepare a buffer for an unknown amino acid with the goal of identifying the unknown amino acid. The objective was to use the Henderson Hasselbalch equation to determine the buffer capacity, and to use the pKa values and molecular weight, to identify the unknown amino acid through acid-base titrations. Titration was done on the unknown amino acid with a strong acid and base while titration was done on NaCl, which acted as a blank for identifying the unknown amino acid and was used to find the true titration curve of the amino acid. The pka values were found to be 1.95 and 8.88, and the molecular weight 133.98 g/mol. Moles extrapolated from the titration curve were used to find the molecular weight of the unknown amino acid, along with the pkas and the pI.
3.Pharmacology 3.1.Mechanism of action Febuxostat is a non purine compound and selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase that has been developed for the treatment of hyperurecemia and gout. It has been found to have inhibitory activity for xanthine oxidase(XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase(XDH) during evaluation of a range of newly synthesized molecules. In humans, the xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme(XOR) catalyzes the last 2 steps in uric acid synthesis,the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. febuxostat was shown to inhibit both oxidized and reduced forms of XO unlike allopurinol or oxypurinol which binds only to one form of enzyme. Figure 3. mechanism of action of febuxostat Febuxostat reduces the production of uric acid by non-competitively blocking the molybdenum-pterin center which is the active site on xanthine oxidase.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is normally found in living intestine of humans and animals. A bacterium that are harmless and is important to the health of the human’s intestinal tract. The intestinal tract is part of the digestive system; having varies of sizes of intestine that transport the food in order to absorb the nutrients and expel the waste. However, some E. coli are pathogenic, causing illness to the host such as diarrhea or harm the outside of the intestinal tract. The host can be effected by the consumption of contaminated water or food, or having contact with the animals or people.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
A vital way Pertussis is prevented is through vaccines. There are two types of Pertussis vaccines, whole-cell vaccine (wP) and acellular Pertussis (aP) There is little difference between the vaccines as the efficiency in defence against Pertussis are similar and the adverse effects are minor in both vaccines, the main difference is the price. aP vaccines are commonly used in developed countries because people can afford them, whilst in developing countries wP is the preferred vaccine because of the low prices. The human immune response against wP vaccines is directed against an array of antigens of the whole bacterial cells. Some antigens like Pertussis Toxins (PT) have been recorded as “immune response modifiers” There are also records of substantial disparities in immune responses depending on the antigens found in different vaccines that were tested.
project in science 7 second quarter Joshua v. llana 7 fluorine Submitted to: Sir micheal hayag Table of contents Page title Page number Introduction Page # 1 Body system Page # 2-5 5 communicable diseases Page # 6-10 prevention Page # 11-12 Introduction: Immunity is a state of a specific resistance to infection. Specific resistance is directed against a particular type of microorganism and is a one of the most important characteristic of the immunity. The Immune System is a system of biological structures that processes in an organism that protects in diseases. It is functioning properly if it has a wide variety of agents known as pathogens from the viruses and parasite worms, and known them from the organisms healthy tissue.
Using chitosan as a food preservative allows for reuse of this waste, making its use environmentally beneficial; while also reasonably cheap and cost-effective in production and usage. - Its biodegradability also allows chitosan biofilms to be beneficial to the environment. - The chitosan film has antibacterial and antifungal properties, meaning that it ultimately prolongs shelf-lives of the foods which it coats. - As chitosan film is a polysaccharide which physically coats the food product, it offers the advantage of being edible,