Their research determined that ingested salicin becomes salicylic acid in the stomach, and that salicylic acid is responsible for the desired effects as well as undesirable toxic side effects that include gastrointestinal bleeding. In 1875 a derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid. Acetylsalicylic acid was discovered to have the properties of and to have many fewer side effects than salicylic acid. In 1899 acetylsalicylic acid appeared in powder form for the first time; 1915 was the first time that it appeared in pill form. A part of the terms of the peace treaty with Germany following World War I was the surrender of the patent and of the trade mark ASPIRIN for acetylsalicylic acid.
Philosophically, the importance of the willow tree has come a long way since the Assyrians (4000 BC) and Sumerians (3500 BC), who had seen its medicinal benefits. The first documented use of willow bark as an analgesic was recorded by Hippocrates in 4000 BC. The evolution of the willow tree’s use as a medicinal treatment occurred first with the question of the clinical potential of willow, then the discovery of the structure of salicin, and finally the chemical synthesis of salicylic acid and aspirin. The pharmacological component of willow bark, salicin, was discovered in 1838 by Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist. Piria’s discovery of salicin led to further discoveries of the use of the compound and eventually to the synthesis of aspirin in 1893 by Felix Hoffman.For thousands of years, herbalists have looked to nature in order to solve various ailments.
1) Fig 1: Extract from seeds of Myristica fragrans Phytochemical screening of Myristica fragrans extract The ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans showed positive results for flavonoids and tannins and negative results for carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins and alkaloids. Identification of Myristicin in the plant extract Four spots were obtained by TLC and Rf values were calculated to obtain 0.7, 0.53, 0.38, 0.25 from which 0.7 determines the reference value Rf of Myristicin (Fig. 2) Fig. 2: TLC of Myristica fragrans extract in Toluene: Ethyl acetate (93:7). Formulated topical Gel The Myristica fragrans gel was prepared using three different concentration of Carbapol 934 and were further subjected to evaluation of various parameters (Fig.
Acetone: Acetone dissolves many hydrophilic and lipophilic components, is miscible with water, is volatile and has a low toxicity, it is a very useful extractant, especially for antimicrobial studies where more phenolic compounds are required to be extracted. A study reported that extraction of tannins and other phenolics was better in aqueous acetone than in aqueous methanol (Das K et al.,2010, Eloff JN.,1998) . Both acetone and methanol were found to extract saponins which have antimicrobial activity (Ncube
Herbal ephedra, which is also known as Ma huang, Chinese ephedra and epitonin, is the world's oldest medicine. The Chinese discovered ephedra in the form of the Ma Huang plant more than 5,000 years ago and it is the basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine. A 1999 UC Berkeley study tells us that the Chinese took sun-dried stems from this ancient plant and ground them up into manageable pieces for use in teas. These teas are still used in many societies, especially in the American Southwest. In this area it is known as Mormon tea, Brigham tea, or desert tea.
Bacopa monnieri (L.) belong to family Scrophulariaceae, is commonly known as Brahmi, Jalbhrami is an important medicinal herb, an annual plant found throughout the Indian subcontinent in wet, damp and marshy areas (Majumdar et al., 2013; and reference therein ) and widely distributed in the warmer parts of Asia, Australia and America (Rahman et al., 2002). This herb has been described in Ayurvedic texts since around 800 BC and recorded as a treatment for a range of mental disorders in the ‘Carak Samhita’ (Majumdar, et al., and reference therein). Bacopa monnieri is classified as medhya rasayan, i.e., a drug that is supposed to counteract the effect of mental stress and improve intelligence and memory function that improve mental health, intellect and memory (medhya) and promote longevity and rejuvenation (rasayana) (Singh, 2013).The alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains various active alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides triterpenoid saponins such as bacoside A and B (Charles et al., 2011; Majumdar et al., 2013). These are the secondary metabolic products of the plant. Previous studies have shown that two triterpenoid glycoside saponins viz.bacoside A and B, are pharmacologically active compounds in the plant extract (Sivaramakrishna et al., 2005).
Similar to our study, Joch et al. (6) observed that in vitro GP increased significantly with herbal and plant extracts supplementation. They noted that the increase of gas volume might be due to the inclusion of soluble sugars in the reaction mixture. In this case, the gas production decline could be due to the anti-microbial effect of HP at the high concentrations. Compared with control, addition of HP into the basal diet resulted in a decrease of Methane production (P < 0.05).
The thermogram of DTZ HCl showed a single sharp endothermic peak at 215°C. The physical mixtures showed the characteristic endothermal peaks of the drug, while, the thermogram of DTZ HCl physical mixture showed broad endothermic peaks only, with complete disappearance of the drug melting peak as a result of drug. These results agree with that of Sultana et al., 2009, who found that, the endothermic peak of DTZ HCl in alginate microspheres was not distinctive indicating
Saffranal is the aglycon of picocrocin and are responsible for many pharmacological actions (26-27). Saffron is having approximately 40–50 different constituents including various carbohydrates, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, pigments, Flavenoids, amino acids, proteins, starch and gums (28). But crocin and saffranal were found pharmaceutically more useful than other. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated radical scavenging (29), antiepileptic, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic, antioxidant (30), anti- inflammatory and antinociceptive properties for crocin and saffranal. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated antiepileptic, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory¸ and antinociceptive properties for crocin and saffranal
Fine aromatic flavour of clove blends well with sweet and savoury dishes. Clove is also used in medicine as carminative, stimulant and digestive. The oil is used as ingredient for many toothpastes and mouthwashes. Indian production of clove during 2012-13 about 1210 tonnes in an area of 2373 ha and imports 10.10 lakh tonnes