The compound’s empirical formula was determined to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O. With the molecular formula and the balanced equation for the synthesis of potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) trihydrate, stoichiometry revealed potassium oxalate monohydrate was the limiting reactant. The theoretical yield of 6 grams of potassium oxalate monohydrate was
Tryptic digestion of the final phosphoprotein residue and detection of the increased phosphorylation in the ninhydrin-staining band of peptides derived from synaptosomes of trained mice is further evidence of this. Additional proof of incorporation of radioactive phosphate into proteins was obtained by hydrolysing the phosphoprotein residue with pronase or HCl, followed by separation of the phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and inorganic phosphate (Table 4). HCl digestion appeared to be a more effective method of hydrolysis, since more radioactivity was recovered and less extraneous ninhydrin-staining material was obtained during electrophoretic separation. The combination of Dowex column chromatography with electrophorectic separation was the best way to separate phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and orthophosphate from
10, is a linear curve for 4-NP reduction using AuNPs. It was observed that the increase in temperature helps the rate of reaction to increase. The activation energy was calculated from the slope of the straight line and was found to be 7.4 ± 1.34 k Cal/mol. The above results are of clear indication that catalysis usually takes place on the surface of the nanoparticles. 3.8 Catalytic reduction of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) The electron transfer reaction between hexacyanoferrate (III) and sodium borohydride results in the formation of hexacyanoferrate (II) ion and dihydrogen borate ion and this reaction is strongly catalyzed by AuNPs.
THEORY OF THE EXPERIMENT In this experiment change in the volume of reagents by diluting with water is used as change in the concentration and reciprocal of the time taken for the appearance of blue black colour as the reaction rate. Equation of reaction H2O2 (aq) + 2H+ (aq) +2I- (aq) I2 + 2H2O Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: Decrease in concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decreases the rate of reaction (that is, increases the time for reaction to come to completion). In the reaction between potassium iodide (KI), hydrogen peroxide, Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O4) under acidic condition. Hypothesis 2: Decrease in the concentration of potassium iodide decreases the rate of reaction (that is increases the time for the reaction to come to completion). In the reaction between potassium iodide (KI), hydrogen peroxide, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) under acidic condition.
2. Experimental 2.1. Chemicals Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (99.99%) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Absolute ethanol (≥99.99%) was purchased from Merck Millipore (Germany).These reactants and the models pollutants HCOOH and phenol were obtained from Acros Organics and used without further purification. Commercial TiO2 P25 was obtained from Evonik.
Two small additional peaks at δ = 0.8 and δ = 1.6 were found may be due to impurities present. 1H-NMR spectrum of PHA isolated from glucose or molasses media indicated characteristic signals of PHB, namely a doublet at 1.26 ppm, which is attributed to the methyl (CH3) group coupled to one proton while a doublet of quadruplet at 2.51 ppm due to the methylene (CH2) group adjacent to an asymmetric carbon atom bearing a single proton. The third signal at 5.25 ppm, which was attributed to the methine (CH) group. 1H-NMR is a very sensitive method for determining the domain size and miscibility, which is difficult to identify by conventional microscopic or thermal analysis (Kichise et al., 2002).The values of the chemical shifts as well as the assignments of the 1H-NMR signals, which appeared in the spectra are in agreement with results obtained by Kichise et al. (2002) and typically identical to peaks of the authentic PHB sample produced from Aldrich Company, which clearly shown that the extracted biopolymer from the B.thuringienesis in this study was poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid.
Isopropanol is available in the market and is produced by the indirect hydration of propylene in a multistage process that offers very high product purity and consistent quality. The primary advantage of this process is that the acetone produced is free from trace aromatic compounds, particularly benzene as in the cumene route. Benzene forms explosive mixtures with air and is acutely toxic as well as brings harms to health. Cumene route to synthesis acetone produce ethanol as coproduct, the ethanol produced is a waste as the main product required is acetone. Besides, CHP produced from the oxidation of cumene is explosive and dangerous.
2.3. Removal of phenols: Phenols being toxic and environmentally hazardous components are found in wastewaters of coking plants, phenolic resin production plants etc. . Due to their toxicity the treatment must be accomplished before their solutions can be safely discharged into the water resources. It has been observed that phenol has many adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem even when they are exposed to small concentrations.
4.4.4 Markin Bean ChemSketch® Simulation Studies Marvin Bean ChemSketch® is usually employed to study the pKa of drugs and chemical compounds to determine the ionizable functional group within the compound (Uemera et al., 2009; Manchester et al., 2010). In this study, the Marvin Bean ChemSketch® software was applied for the first time to study the microspecies distribution of TSPP, acetate and citrate at pH range 0-14. As mentioned earlier, the observed optical changes were most likely due to conformational changes in the porphyrin macrocycle which resulted from the protonation and deprotonation processes. The TSPP porphyrin can be easily protonated and deprotonated with the presence of ions when the medium pH was close to its pKa. By studying