Paradigm In Research

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Before going in detail of the above important paradigms of research, it is very necessary to have a look on the word “paradigm”. “A paradigm is a pattern, method or system on which a researcher thinks and precedes his/ her research”. According to Rossman & Rollis “paradigm is shared understanding of reality”. It’s a way of thinking and observing. Everyone has his / her own way of observing and interpreting. If a researcher wants to do a research on any topic his point of view will definitely differ from his contemporaries. “A paradigm is a shared world view that represents the beliefs and values in a discipline and that guides how problems are solved.” (Schwandt, 2001)[1] According to (Patton, 2002) [2] following are the paradigm conventions:…show more content…
i. Positivism ii. Post positivism iii. Interpretivism iv. Critical theory v. Pragmatism i. Positivism: It is not an easy task to describe positivism. It totally deals with scientific approach. Scientific method is part and parcel of this philosophy. It has no concern with the human interests and behaviors. Positivism deals with facts and reality. Being a researcher does not mean that we can use every method to find out a solution of problem. All the steps of scientific method are involved in it. It is attached to the factual knowledge. It deals with the reality i.e. outside an individual. Positivist’s goal is to uncover the truth. Research method used in this paradigm will be observation and experiments. Following are the principles behind positivism. a. As it deals with the science so logical inquiry is very important. b. To predict, explain and then discover is the goal of inquiry. c. Inductive logic should be used and research must be empirically observed through human senses. d. As science is involved in it so no common sense biasness should be there. e. Science must be value-free and logically judged. ii. Post…show more content…
It claims that people have their own choices and they have full liberty to express their point of view. It is totally subjective based approach. Peoples’ choices have no concerned and connection with the science laws or nature. This theory has a high validity due to a true world’s presentation. It is an utmost duty of an interpretivist to take care of peoples’ differences. Many interpretations are part and parcel of this thought. It is non-generalizable. Interpretivist’s approach of data collection is natural like interviews and observations. This approach leads towards understanding the respondent’s experiences and point of view. According to interpretivism we can’t separate people from their knowledge. Multiple responses and answers are expected in this research. iv. Critical theory: This paradigm shows that reality can be changed through human intervention and research. According to McCarthy, 1991, “Critical theory is a broad tradition based upon the use of the critique as a method of investigation”. This social theory whether worked in an educational research, literature, philosophy, art and business is very important to change the world’s view. It is a form of rationalism. Rationalism is a sort of thought in which a society thinks and transforms the environment. The goal of critical theory according to T. S. Popkewitz (1984) is: “To change the world not describes
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