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Commensalism Vs Mutualism Essay

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5. What do parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism have in common? How are they different? Parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism are common in the sense that they are close, long-lasting, and physical relationships between two organisms. Generally, these two organisms are of different species and their relationship is formed through natural instincts. Additionally, at least one organism will benefit from the relationship. They are different in the way the two organisms interact and the party that benefits. In parasitism, one party benefits while the other loses out. The parasite derives nourishment from the host, essentially starving or adversely affecting the host. Examples of parasitism are tapeworms in in the intestines of humans, fleas on dogs, and so on. Even though parasites harm their hosts, most will not kill the host (Trees for Life, 2015). In mutualism, both parties in…show more content…
Describe the process of succession. How does primary succession differ from secondary succession? Succession can be defined as the process where a new community is established in either uninhabited or disturbed areas. It is also defined at an observable change in the species structure of an environment over a period of time (The Pennsylvania State University, 2009). The end product of the process of succession is called a climax community which is stable, long-lasting, and harbors many kinds of interactions within it. The process of succession generally starts with the colonization of lichen and other pioneer species on bare rocks. This causes the rocks to break down into soil, where it is replaced by annuals. This is followed by perennial communities, shrubs, shade-intolerant trees, and shade tolerant trees, ending in a stable and complex climax community. In other words, once the pioneer species has set the stage for other lifeforms, it is overtaken by grasses, trees, and shrubs which attracts many species of fauna or leads to the development of new kinds of fauna through
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