It is responsible for the secretion of hormones and processing of emotional responses. In addition, it deals with storage of memories, that is, determining which memories are stored and where those memories are stored.Other functions include autonomic responses as a result of fear and in initiating arousal. It forms part of the limbic system. Olfactory Bulb It forms the end part of the olfactory cortex and is an extension of the ventral surface of the brain (Freberg, 2009). It is responsible for receiving and processing information concerning smell.
5. Describe endocytosis and exocytosis and explain the difference between the two. Exocytosis is where cells expel materials by vesicles. Vesicles is another way that molecules move in and out of a cell. When the vesicle approaches the cell membrane, a section of the vesicle's membrane fuses with the plasma membrane.
List the structures and functions of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of capillaries, vessels, nodes, and other organs that transport a fluid called lymph from the tissues as it returns to the bloodstream. The lymphatic tissues of the organs filters and cleans the lymph of any debris, abnormal cells or pathogens. It also transports fatty acids from the intestines to the circulatory system. 3.
The nervous system consists of two divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the combination of the nerves within the skull and spine, while the peripheral nervous system is the nervous system that goes everywhere inside (autonomic nervous system) and outside (somatic nervous system) around the body except skull and spine. The somatic nervous system has two kinds of nerves; afferent nerves that carry sensory signals from the external parts of the body to center, and efferent nerves which carry motor signals from central nervous system to muscular system. The autonomic nervous system also has afferent and efferent nerves and afferent nerves carry sensory signals from internal organs
The ear has external, middle, and inner portions. The outer ear is called the pinna and is made of ridged cartilage covered by skin. Sound funnels through the pinna into the external auditory canal, a short tube that at the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Sound causes the eardrum and its tiny attached bones in the middle portion of the ear to vibrate, and the vibrations are conducted to the nearby cochlea. The spiral-shaped cochlea is part of the inner ear; it transforms sound into nerve impulses that travel to the brain.
When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood. The arterial hydrostatic pressure that results from ventricular contraction is the systolic blood pressure. The period between the heart constrictions, the elastic walls recoil to maintain the blood pressure. The arterial hydrostatic pressure between contractions is the diastolic blood pressure. The walls of these have a lot of elastin .Elastin is a fibre which is made up of proteins.
There are two such sinuses in the pericardial cavity: the transverse pericardial sinus and the oblique pericardial sinus. Both these are formed during embryonic folding of the heart tube during ontogeny. The reflections (folds) of the serosal layer result in the formation of a set of complex tubes, one enclosing the aorta and the pulmonary trunk and the other enclosing the superior and inferior vena cave and the pulmonary veins. This results in a transverse sinus across the pericardium that separates the arterial blood vessels and the venous blood vessels. The index finger can pass though the transverse sinus, which helps surgeons to identify the blood vessels of the heart during coronary artery bypass surgery.
Starlings forces are the farces that control fluid filtration across the capillaries in the human body and can be described by the equation Jvol = Kf [(Pcap – Pint) – (cap – int)]. Starling’s forces are comprised of two major forces, the Hydrostatic force, or force generated by the fluid in the capillary or interstitial space, or the oncotic force, the force generated by proteins in the interstitial fluid or capillary. Forces that favor the filtration of fluids across the capillary membrane are Pcap, the force of fluids to move out of the capillary into interstitial space, and int, the force of fluids moving out of the interstitial space and into the capillary. Forces that oppose filtration across the capillary membrane are Pint, the force
Deep to the Camper’s fascia is the membranous layer called the Scarpa’s fascia. In the perineum, the Scarpa’s fascia blends into the Colles fascia, while it is continuous with the Dartos fascia of the penis and scrotum. The Colles fascia is also known as the superficial perineal fascia. The Scarpa’s and Camper’s fascia constitute the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. A potential space between the Scarpa’s fascia and the deep fascia of the anterior abdominal wall allows for the extension of perineal infection into the anterior abdominal wall.
It allows the cells to pass through. Then, it also where the process of exchanged between blood and lymphatic vessels occur. Due this process, it allows the lymphatic system to monitor the invading microbes. The lymphatic vessels also carry a clear fluid that it bathes in the body’s tissues that is known as lymph. Another organ is lymph node that is has specialized compartments where the immune system there and can encounter antigens.
The PNS contains somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the function of internal organs like your heart, stomach, cardiac muscle, and your glands. The autonomic nervous system has an effect on the organs, muscles, and glands are all done voluntary. The autonomic nervous system can change the body temperture, send extra blood to a particular area, slow your heartbeat, and pull the stomach secretion. The somatic nervous system is made up of sensory organs and nerves that connects to the skin, also that connects to all the skeleton muscles.