3.Volunteering, which ranges from offering opportunities for parents to visit their child 's school to find ways to recruit and train them to work in the school or the classroom. 4. Learning at home, in which schools and educators share ideas to promote at-home learning through high expectations and strategies so parents can monitor and help with homework. 5. Decision-making, in which schools include families as partners in school organizations, advisory panels, and similar committees.
This includes all of the activities that parents do to raise children to become capable students. Unlike teachers, whose influence on a child is limited to the classroom, parents have a life-long commitment to their children. This type of involvement is accomplished by providing learning opportunities for the parents, in order for them to best parent and support their children in school. Adult literacy programs and degree programs for parents are examples of this. Family support programs that focus on nutrition, health, and a safe household also fall under this type of involvement, as these things are necessary for a child to learn successfully.
Especially for a primary school-age child, people always claim that parents are the role model of their kids. How parents treat them, how their kids behave. By learning unit 5, I better understand the concepts about parenting styles and how are they connecting to child development. It makes me start to recall my memories that how my parents taught me when I was young. By staying with my parents in these eighteen years time, I aware that they treat me a bit authoritative.
As a teacher, it is my responsibility to share information on the development of the child and have a clear and constant flow of dialogue with the family. This will enable both parties to deal with any issues that may arise within the family, school or community. It also my belief that parents should have an active part in their child’s learning and be able to lend a hand whenever necessary, and having open communication with them will allow this transparency and connection between home and school. The community is vital in ensuring that the facilities around the community and school is appropriate for the different children and families to live in and grow. A very good example of this successful collaboration is the Reggio Emilia approach in Italy.
Some schools foster healthy parental involvement through events and volunteer opportunities, but sometimes it’s up to the parents to involve themselves with their children’s education like joining them in field trips. According to works of Epstein (1990, 2011), Ho (2001) and Shen et al. (1994), there are three different types of parental involvement which are home-base involvement, school-base involvement and school governance. Home base involvement refers to the interaction between parent and children at home. School based involvement refers to parent interacting and participation in school activities.
Level 2 examine parent’s motivation through their thought processes to assess what inspired them to want to be involve. This level is mainly about understanding parent’s intrinsic motivation and how their sense of purpose serves as motivation such as wanting recognition and accolades by their children, teachers, and school administration for their involvement. Walker (2011) stated that schools have the power to motivate parents through effective two-way communication in using community resources and various media
Parenting styles literature review At present, it is well known that parents are not the only ones who contribute to the socialization process in children but they are still the main key concept in child development and socialization of children in society as the constitutes the first element of socialization for human beings (Maccoby, 1992). The relationship between parents and their children has a significant influence on the children, the parental styles are considering as effective elements that help the child to shape their view of themselves and their world (Santrock, 2005 as it cited in Sartaj and Aslam, 2010). Pinquart (2017) stated that there were two of perspectives had been adopted in parenting literature: first; a dimensional
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses the review of related literature and information gathered by the researcher addressing parental involvement on inclusive education of children with developmental disability. A synthesis will also be provided. Parental Involvement Parental involvement, as described by Henderson and Nancy (1994), is a serious dimension of effective schooling. It has been defined in many ways, commonly as the engagement of parents in their children’s activities at home and at school, and the assurance of parents about their children’s education (Eipstein, 1996; Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994; Kohl, Lengua, & McMahon, 2000). Hill and Taylor (2004) also termed involvement as allowing parents in observing the school
The school plays an important role in determining the levels of parental involvement in school. Specifically, schools can outline their expectations of parents and regularly communicate with parents about what children are learning. Also, schools can provide opportunities for parents to talk with school personnel about parents' role in their children's education through home visits, family nights, and well-planned parent-teacher conferences and open houses. In addition, the National PTA recommends that parent/family involvement programs welcome parents as volunteer partners in schools and that these programs invite parents to act as full partners in making school decisions that affect children and families. In saying so, developing initiatives to forge stronger ties to the community to reinforce for students a feeling of consistent support from
HFRP then moved to list a few examples of learning supports such as families, early childhood programs, schools, out – of – school time programs, activities, higher education, health and social services, agencies, business, libraries, museums and so on. HFRP (pg1, 2006) states that, to achieve positive results for young children and their school readiness, it is necessary to match children’s developmental needs, parents’ attitudes and practices, and early childhood programs’ expectations and support of family involvement. From the article Parental Involvement in their Child (ren)’s Learning written by the Center for Child Well-Being from the Mount Royal University, it is stated that Epstein (1995) described six types of involvement from parents in school which are parenting, meaning the main roles that are play out by parents such as providing housing, nutrition, safety as well as health to their children and parents should also provide home conditions for learning at all levels. Secondly, communicating is also a type of parental involvement, examples are such as school-to-home communication that may involve memos, notices, newsletters, report cards, conferences, phone calls. Parents can also provide communication from