Diana Baumrind (1971), has been credited for defining three specific parenting styles and their consequences for children. These are: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles of parenting based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child. According to Baumrind (1991), parenting styles are meant to capture normal variations in the attempt of parents to socialize children. Two points are critical in understanding this definition: i. Parenting style is meant to describe normal variations in parenting.
One of the greatest challenges in human kind is to find the best parenting styles to educate their children (Hong, 2012). “Indubitably, all parents want their children to succeed at school, but not all parents are successful in facilitating [this] success” (Mandell & Sweet, 2004, cited in Areepattamannil, 2010, p.283). According to Hong (2012), in order for the parents to furnish the desirable and sustainable parenting skills for their children’s healthy development, it is essential to understand and inquire into the impact of the various types of parenting styles towards their children’s behavior, especially their academic performance in school. According to the developmental psychologist, Diana Baumrind (Verenikina, Vialle & Lysaght, 2011),
Parenting Styles Based on the work of Diana Baumrind (1991), a developmental psychologist, Parenting Styles are commonly used in psychology today. Baumrind identified three initial parts of parenting styles: authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting style. Parenting Styles have a two-dimensional framework expanded by Maccoby and Martin (1983). The two dimensional parenting behavior are demandingness and responsiveness. Parenting styles are important, as it determines largely the kind of environment a child is raised in.
Hence, they tend to adopt and imitate such methods of disciplining the children. In addition, there are a total of four types of parenting styles in general including: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive and Uninvolved/Neglectful (Morin, 2017). Characteristics and
Huang & Prochner, in 2004 has linked parental style to children's development of self-regulated learning and exertion of control over their own learning in the Chinese culture. Studies revealed that authoritative parenting style was significantly and positively related to students' self-regulated learning, whereas authoritarian parenting style was significantly and negatively related to students' self-regulated learning But the research also indicates that permissive parental style may have a slight negative impact on students self-regulated learning. (Huang & Prochner 2004) Further research examining first and second graders in Beijing, China found that authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration (Zhou, 2004). However, this study did not find evidence to support a relationship between authoritative parenting and children's dispositional anger/frustration. in another study, it was found also a link between self perception (academic competence, morality and self-reliance) of Korean
Parents play a big role in a child’s life and contribute largely to the development of the children. How so? Each parent has his or her own methodology as to how they would raise their child, this is called parenting style. A developmental psychologist Diana Baurmrind studied parenting styles during the early 1960s. The four parenting styles she developed was based on the actions and behaviors of parents and how they affect child development, paying close attention to four important areas involving a parents ' warmth or nurturance, discipline strategy, communication skills, and expectations of maturity.
1. Describe the different styles of parenting described by Baumrind, explain which style of parenting you think is most effective. In the 1960s Diana Baumrind discovered the three different parenting styles over a long period. The first style is called The Authoritarian Parenting which is a very strict method in which they keep their children close to them so they can watch and control their every step. The parents have very high expectations for their children so any misbehavior is not tolerated and is usually corrected right after by a harsh punishment given onto them.
Baumrind defines the parenting style as the parental control function which is divided into three methods, namely authoritarian, authoritative and permissive (Mounts et al., 1994). The authoritarian child rearing style is identified with severe control, high restriction, rough and disharmonious discipline and a low level of emotional support. Evidence shows that the authoritarian style has a negative relationship with behavioural consequences including aggression, externalization and lower emotional function. On the other hand, the authoritative child rearing style is identified with high levels of emotional support, proper independency and a mutual relationship between parents and children. Based on the research conducted, this parenting style has a positive effect on educational advancement, more self-sufficiency, less misbehaviour, and a better relationship with the peers (Laali-Faz & Askari, 2008).
There are many different types of parenting styles that are being taught to children today. The two most common parenting styles there is, is permissive parenting and authoritative parenting. It has been argued that one of these parenting styles is considered better than the other, but there is no proof so that may or may not be the case. Besides that, permissive parenting and authoritative parenting are both the ideal style of parenting, but there are some ways we can state that they are similar or different from each other. Although permissive and authoritative are the two main parenting styles presented here, they both have different meanings.