Research also shows that authoritarian style parenting differs greatly from that of permissive and authoritative styles. There is a pattern emerging in the research that suggests authoritarian style parents have high expectations of their children and have very strict rules that they expect to be followed unconditionally. They express very little warmth or nurturing towards the child and may have a dysfunctional relationship as the child reaches adolescent years. The parents tend to be driven by obedience and status and expect their orders to be obeyed without question. The children of authoritarian parents tend to be controlled through shaming, the withdrawal of love, or other punishments and reasons for rules are not usually explained (Baumrind 1966).
A well-known psychologist, Baumrind (1967, 1971) identified three main parenting styles which are used by parents mainly of preschool and older children. These parenting styles are named as follows: authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting and permissive parenting. Parenting as by definition is considered to be an important element of several aspects of children 's outcome (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, and Onghena, 2004). Everyone was brought up according to a certain parenting style or more than one parenting style. Parenting errors have an influence on a child’s behaviour especially during adolescence.
(2012), parenting styles are crucial agents that influencing all aspects and stages of a child 's development. According to Maccoby & Martin (1983) (as cited in Ishak et al., 2012) parenting is a continuum and includes two significant elements “responsiveness” and “demandingness”. According to Baurmind (1991); the parental demandingness refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys’’ and responsiveness refers to ‘‘the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s special needs and
First one is complimentary parenting style where both the parents use same parenting style that is both mother and father follow same style . the second one is non complimentary parenting style where parents follow dfferent parenting style. It is believed that a child’s personality development completely depends on the way their parents interact with the child. The type of discipline that a parent uses with their child can have a dramatic effect on their child’s development. These discipline strategies can have a big impact on the type of relationship one has with their child.
Academic achievement is considered by scholars as one of the main goals for the school-age children (García Coll & Szalacha, 2004). According to modern theories, child development and his progress in school is related to some personal factors such as gender, socio-economic background of the family, the interaction of the child with the family environment, and family cooperation with the school (Bronfenbrenner, 1998, Cicchetti & Toth, 2000, Eitle 2005, Jacobs & Harvey, 2005). One of the most comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the development of the child and their academic achievements is the theory of Epstein (1997, 2005, 2011) known differently as the model of overlapping spheres. This model is focused on the roles that
Permissive parenting that lack control and discipline over their children are negatively related with the academic achievement by the permissive parents (Dornbusch, Fraleigh, Lerderman, Ritter, & Robert , 1987). Parents must involve and act positively related to academic achievement of their children (Xitao & Michael, 2001). The society in general and educators in particular have agreed that parental involvements are one of the important ingredients which accounted for many problems in education. Permissive parenting has a tendency to lead their children toward lower academic performance. Verenikina, Vialle, and Lysaght (2011) found that permissive parenting approaching their children with easy going and very casual methods and having open communication and developed warmer relationship between them.
The authoritarian parenting style generally gives adverse effects to children in social skills, personality and achievement. Ideally, all parent should adopt authoritative parenting style which allows parents to listen to them and provide warmth, freedom and love. Perhaps authoritarian parents will realise their parenting style is destroying their child but not fostering. And change the style to a suitable one that work best for
How parents impact child development has been a long interest in the field of psychology. It is evident in recent researches that there are convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children’s self-esteem. The term, “parenting styles” refers to behaviours and strategies used by parents to control and socialise their children (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). According to Baumrind (1971), there are three types of parenting styles, namely authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. It was later re-evaluated by Maccoby and Martin (1983) into four styles, which are authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful.
Parents have a responsibility to discipline their children. As such, it is critical for parents to understand that discipline does not include abuse. (OASIS School for Interdisciplinary Studies ( 2016) stated that the “National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect defines child abuse as ―the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child‘s welfare” (p. 89). It is possible for parents to discipline their children resulting in breaking their will through abuse. However, Ephesians 6:4 warned "Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord".
It can be authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. Parenting styles is the way in which a parent interacts with his or her child is an important factor in the child’s socio emotional growth. It is also based on how a parent responds to the needs and interests of their children and how they supervised and discipline them. The way in which parents choose to raise their children is also known to be parenting. The way we nurture our child can be directly or indirectly influences their emotional intelligence.