Especially for a primary school-age child, people always claim that parents are the role model of their kids. How parents treat them, how their kids behave. By learning unit 5, I better understand the concepts about parenting styles and how are they connecting to child development. It makes me start to recall my memories that how my parents taught me when I was young. By staying with my parents in these eighteen years time, I aware that they treat me a bit authoritative.
Next, although both family and friends affects teenagers in term of originating personalities, there are still some significant differences. While parents help youth to create their basic manners, friends are responsible for making teenagers become more perfect. Guzman ( ) claimed that teens report having political, religious, and general beliefs similar to their parents, and consider their parents as being highly significant and influential in their lives. Parents are the first teachers of their children, who nurture them with unconditional love, teach them behave suitable to the norm of society and shape their basic personalities. Besides, by encouraging teens participate in social activities such as volunteering, playing sports or doing part time job, peers help teenagers to identify themselves and gain more experiences needed for future during school time.
Parenting practices/parenting styles Interaction between parents and children in this thesis in the context of parents’ struggle to find an appropriate answer to their children’s questions, could be also define as parenting styles (Darling & Steinberg 1993). Darlin and Steinberg (1993) define the parenting styles as parents’ behaviors and characteristics which is the important part of parent-child interaction and relationships over a wide range of situations. Some of the parents’ styles which are discussed in the literature are presented in the following. The importance of parental expectations of children is described in Ochs and Schieffelin (1984). Their research and further language socialization studies show that perceptions of children and children’s competence influence caregiver-child interaction.
Edward Tronick’s “Still Face Experiment,” we are able to acknowledge the importance of social interactions in relationships. The experiment proved that the way parents interacts with their child is significant to their development of communication and security. These interactions will later on allow them to become the confident person that explores and forms successful relationships with others. Parents who are “still-faced” over the course of their child’s life may be suffering from alcoholism, possibly afflicted by a mental disorder, may be too busy, e.t.c. We see parents being “still-faced” with their children in public and even in our own homes at times.
According to Louw et al (1998), middle childhood can be regarded as a sensitive period of development of self-concept develops from their experiences and represents how they see themselves. Self-esteem also plays a major role because children’s self-esteem is affected by their family circumstances and experiences. For example, research indicates that unpleasant family circumstances, such as the loss of a parent, have a significant influence on a child’s self-esteem (Plotnik. 1999). Moreover, schools are effective for socialization during middle childhood as it is here that culture norms and values are conveyed.
It directly affects his/her temperament. • The child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks (Angela Oswalt, 2008). Emotional relationships with others during this stage are exhibited through the development of empathy and social competence. It is a very crucial development and it depends on the child’s relationship with his/her parents, siblings, peers, and caregivers. Social development in early childhood The term social development is inter-related with emotional development in the early childhood stage.
If an adolescent has a strong sense of personal identity, he or she will be able to achieve a greater sense of responsibility and self-confidence; consequently there is also an increment in the capacity for social development. Social relationships hold an important key in the transformation of an adolescent. The environment of the adolescents usually centers at home where they perceived their parents as self-emulating. Most young adults are involved with their peers, friends, and acquaintances. The adolescents’ developmental tasks are as follows: a) achieving new and mature relation with age-mates of both sexes, b) achieving a masculine or feminine social roles, c) accepting one’s physical and using one’s body effectively, d) desiring acceptance and achieving socially responsible behavior, e) achieving emotional independence from parents and adults, f) preparing for an economic career, g) preparing for marriage and family life, h) acquiring a set of values an ethical system as a guide to behavior-developing an ideology, and i) developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence.
(McLeod, 2008) Parents can help to solve their problem by clearing their doubts by discussing the sex difference. They also can discuss the individual relationship they have among the family as parents and kids. By doing this parents can determine their emotions and help them to be independent in the future. 4 Adolescence & Learning /0765 Zulfa Jaleel /
Hence it is clear that students’ attitude and performance is dependent on the stimulus the home provides. Educational nurturing is very much connected and influence by the family of an individual. Each and every member of the family acts as a model to the child as he/ she copies from each of them. Eyake (1997) quoted. Learning difficulties in students may perhaps be traced to other factors such as gender, locality, student’s attitudes, their intelligence, culture and their socio economic status.