How parents impact child development has been a long interest in the field of psychology. It is evident in recent researches that there are convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children’s self-esteem. The term, “parenting styles” refers to behaviours and strategies used by parents to control and socialise their children (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). According to Baumrind (1971), there are three types of parenting styles, namely authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. It was later re-evaluated by Maccoby and Martin (1983) into four styles, which are authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful.
Parenting styles refer to the manner in which adult figures are accustomed to in the process of child rearing. This can refer to the caregiver 's level of expectation, performance demands and attentiveness to rules as well as the style of discipline that the parents follow to enforce their expectations on the child or adolescent. Parenting styles tend to reflect two primary dimensions of behaviour: emotionality and control. There are three types of parenting styles that will be the focus of this piece, Permissive parenting, authoritarian parenting and authoritative parenting. (Baumrind’s 1971) permissive, authoritarian and authoritative typologies are currently widely used models of parenting styles..The use of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents ' attempts to
Similarly, characteristics of young children who grew up with authoritative parenting includes socially competent, friendly and cheerful (Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch & Darling, 1992). ECE should adopt such practices where although high level of demanding control is imposed upon young children, high level of warmth and responsiveness is accompanied. The corresponding practices adopted by both the parents and teachers enables young children to develop on their existing positive characteristics and also develop positive relationships with their
According to Strage (2000), authoritative parenting incorporates with high standards for achievement such as demandingness provide emotional support and encouraging independence in the adolescent. Authoritarian parents try to shape, control, and jugged the behavior of the children’s and they usually followed an absolute standard. They also used punishing and forceful measures when the child’s views conflicted with parents. The permissive parenting style matches to the behaviors of affection and responsiveness with the child, without any restrictions for appropriate behavior. Mandara and Murray (2002) used the approach of Baumrind and they want to study the association between parental rearing, psychopathology, and competence in childhood and in adolescence.
Although parents may differ in how they exert control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, educate, and socialize their children. The authoritative style of parenting has the following characteristics: an expectation of independence and mature behaviour from the child and clear setting of standards by the parents; firm enforcement of rules and standards, using commands and sanctions when necessary; encouragement of the child’s independence and individuality. Baumrind (1991), stated that in parental control and support, authoritative parenting style is high. She found that the
First one is complimentary parenting style where both the parents use same parenting style that is both mother and father follow same style . the second one is non complimentary parenting style where parents follow dfferent parenting style. It is believed that a child’s personality development completely depends on the way their parents interact with the child. The type of discipline that a parent uses with their child can have a dramatic effect on their child’s development. These discipline strategies can have a big impact on the type of relationship one has with their child.
Family is the important and basic unit of society. The components of a typical family, the parents and their children, have their own duties, responsibilities, tasks, and reasons as to why they exist in the society. Children are not only sources of genuine happiness, but they also ensure the reproductive success of their parents’ lineage. Parents, on the other hand, are considered as the backbone of the family because the power is in their hands to plan, decide, and control family matters and events. It is their responsibility to nurture their children by means of providing the physiological, security, social, and self-esteem needs of their children.
Permissive parenting that lack control and discipline over their children are negatively related with the academic achievement by the permissive parents (Dornbusch, Fraleigh, Lerderman, Ritter, & Robert , 1987). Parents must involve and act positively related to academic achievement of their children (Xitao & Michael, 2001). The society in general and educators in particular have agreed that parental involvements are one of the important ingredients which accounted for many problems in education. Permissive parenting has a tendency to lead their children toward lower academic performance. Verenikina, Vialle, and Lysaght (2011) found that permissive parenting approaching their children with easy going and very casual methods and having open communication and developed warmer relationship between them.
Parents play a significant role in the lives of their children. They are the significant people who are within the immediate environment of a child. They have a direct influence in the totality or wholeness of their children because they serve as the models of behavior and personality. Cooley´s concept of the looking glass self states that a person’s self grows out of a person´s social interactions with others. How the person sees himself or herself stems from the contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive him/her.
Operational definition: Family background According to Cunha and Heckman (2007), a family’s initial investment has a deep impact on the formation of children’s skills and the later disparity and inequality in their occupation life as adults. Family become the main factor in influence the skills of their children. Family is defines as a primary social group consisting of parents and their offspring, the principal function of which is provision for its members. Then, family background refers to birth, childhood, residences, economic conditions and jobs of parents. The family communication during childhood and the formation of skills that fall outside of scholastic ability, motivation, abilities with personality and emotion (Honda, 2005).