(2012), parenting styles are crucial agents that influencing all aspects and stages of a child 's development. According to Maccoby & Martin (1983) (as cited in Ishak et al., 2012) parenting is a continuum and includes two significant elements “responsiveness” and “demandingness”. According to Baurmind (1991); the parental demandingness refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys’’ and responsiveness refers to ‘‘the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s special needs and
First one is complimentary parenting style where both the parents use same parenting style that is both mother and father follow same style . the second one is non complimentary parenting style where parents follow dfferent parenting style. It is believed that a child’s personality development completely depends on the way their parents interact with the child. The type of discipline that a parent uses with their child can have a dramatic effect on their child’s development. These discipline strategies can have a big impact on the type of relationship one has with their child.
Parents construct an image of mothering and fathering through these media portrayals (Francis-Connolly 2003). Luke (1994) notes that mothers are portrayed in a traditional role and fathers are rarely shown in playing a parenting role. Fathers are portrayed playing the traditional “good provider” role. In the 19th century fathers in Europe and North America were expected
A well-known psychologist, Baumrind (1967, 1971) identified three main parenting styles which are used by parents mainly of preschool and older children. These parenting styles are named as follows: authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting and permissive parenting. Parenting as by definition is considered to be an important element of several aspects of children 's outcome (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, and Onghena, 2004). Everyone was brought up according to a certain parenting style or more than one parenting style. Parenting errors have an influence on a child’s behaviour especially during adolescence.
Does birth order affect our personality in terms of self-esteem? For years there have been arguments as to whether there is a significant relationship regarding birth order among siblings on the level of self-esteem. Birth order is broadly researched and it is a questionable concept in psychology which has attracted much arguments throughout the history. According to Schulman and Mosak (1977), there are two definitions of birth order in two different perspectives. In the general perspective, birth order is referred as the actual birth order among siblings whereas in the psychological perspective, it is correlated with the role adopted by the child in their interaction with others.
Research also shows that authoritarian style parenting differs greatly from that of permissive and authoritative styles. There is a pattern emerging in the research that suggests authoritarian style parents have high expectations of their children and have very strict rules that they expect to be followed unconditionally. They express very little warmth or nurturing towards the child and may have a dysfunctional relationship as the child reaches adolescent years. The parents tend to be driven by obedience and status and expect their orders to be obeyed without question. The children of authoritarian parents tend to be controlled through shaming, the withdrawal of love, or other punishments and reasons for rules are not usually explained (Baumrind 1966).
Males and females have biological differences, it is life experience that reinforces or contradicts those differences, however, they are not really as different as most perceive them to be, this fact lies in differential socialization, which claims that males and females are taught and influenced different appropriate behaviours for their gender by their first teacher and caregiver, their parents (Burn, Aboud, & Moyles 2000). At a young age, boys and girls spend most of their time in their home with their families and look up to their parents for guidance. Through observation of particular parental behaviors in the context of their family, children learn that certain actions may be drawn on as symbolic markers of gender (Cunningham, 2001). The parents are also the one that provides children with their first lessons about gender, one way that parents influence children’s gender development is through the role modeling and encouragement of different behaviors and activities in sons and daughters (Leaper, 2013). According to Bussey and Bandura (1999), parents also play an active role in setting the course of their children 's gender development by structuring, channeling, modeling, labeling, and reacting evaluatively to gender-linked conduct.
Daren O’Toole in 2014 stated “as a society we must call upon our parents and our schools to provide necessary guidance, care and education to our children “.Unfortunately, mostly parents do not care about this statement. For example, there are parents who do not care about welfare and give guidance towards their own children. Furthermore, parents also do not care about education in school for their children. According to statistics, “In 2014, 69% of couple families with at least one child under 16 years of age had two working parents, up from 36% in 1976. This proportion increased in every province, but not equally among provinces “(Statistics Canada, 2015).
The family plays numerous different roles in society and has various different functions. “For most people, the core attributes of self are formed within the family, for that is where children first acquire a strong sense of identity and personal significance or insignificance.” (Nash and Calonico 1993 p.53) According to Nash and Calonico, family is a clear example of “the ‘primary group’ and is, therefore, an important agent of socialisation.” (Nash and Calonico 1993
The biological pattern is made up of elements that come from both parents and transmitted directly from them to their off spring(General psychology with value development’ 2006 ). we cannot say that Genes act as an exact blueprint that determine our personality and behavior.Human being’s certain characteristics are biologically determined and is influenced by genetic factor.Heredity plays a great role in influencing some of the physical and psychological characteristics and several disorders which is transmitted from parents or ancestors to