Park-Based Physical Activity

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HAPTER 2- LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Parks are important for physical activity. This literature review will examine two areas of research relating factors related to park-based physical activity (i.e., park characteristics and constraints), as well as the influence of demographics and past experience. 2.1.1 Physical activity and park characteristics Characteristics of parks are shown to influence the activity in parks. Various factors include features (facilities, programs, diversity), condition (maintenance, incivilities), access (availability, equitable, individual, within park), aesthetics (design, attractiveness), safety (perceived, objective), and policies (management, budget). These factors work…show more content…
One such factor is constraints, defined as “factors that limit people’s participation in free time activities”. Even though parks and other health related services are available in communities and people express interest in healthy lifestyles, many do not visit parks or engage in free time physical activity. Constraints research generate new perceptions into aspects of leisure previously thought to be well understood by understanding the negative factors of individual’s behaviour and choices. Three categories of constraints to leisure: intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, and structural constraints. Intrapersonal constraints are individual psychological states and attributes that inhibit the gaining of leisure preference, including abilities, personality needs, and attitudes (e.g., fears or preferences). Interpersonal constraints are those arisen from others like family and friends (e.g., not having people to go with). Finally, structural constraints are factors get involved leisure preference and participation (e.g., lack of time/money). A hierarchical model of constraints in which intrapersonal constraints are encountered first, followed by interpersonal constraints and structural constraints resulting in either participation or…show more content…
Use of park visitation frequency (i.e., not at all, occasional and frequent) to examine its relationship with daily physical activity, and found that visitation frequencies have a positive relation to physical activity. 2.2 PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Neighbourhood parks are an integral part of the neighbourhood and need to be Planned strategically to encourage social interaction and recreation. There are various spatial planning factors that if addressed as part of neighbourhood planning will assist in supporting maximum use of these spaces. • Parks need to be appropriately distributed to ensure all residents can easily walk to park. Ideally, other community facilities should be co-located to encourage dual use and parks should form part of an overall broader open space and movement complex to encourage walking and cycling throughout the

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