By definition, corrections are the variety of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of individuals who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses (Clear 11). Yet, looking at what prisons are giving inmates today, it seems that this definition is not being upheld. There has been a lack of funding towards new programs that could prevent inmates from returning to prison, and the result is an increase in recidivism in prisons all over the United States. Since World War II through the 1970s, many changes have occurred in the United States correctional systems. During these years, the correctional system has transformed from the rehabilitation model to a more punitive model.
In the documentary Locked Up: Prison in America the main problem that is discussed is that due to mass incarceration there is an overflow of prisoners and the state can not house them all. One of the main concerns is that a lot of these prisoners are being locked up for non-violent crimes and it costing the state millions of dollars to house them in these prisons. For example it was getting so out of hand that they were forces to let one of the inmates out six months early because they needed the space to house all of these inmates in an already over crowded facility. Even though all of the people being interviewed for this documentary were African American I do not think that race plays a part in whether or not some get locked up.
1. A survey conducted in Washington; the survey showed that the majority of the public believed that treatment and job training programs in prisons must increase for the sake of public safety, so when an inmate is released they will be a productive citizen. The survey also showed that the public believes that there are too many low-risk and non-violent offenders in prison. 2. Correctional agencies reduce their operating costs by Reducing Unnecessary Consumption of Medical Services, tightening contracting and auditing, using in-house medical services when it is less expensive, reducing the inmate population, and decreasing parole revocation rate.
Administration of parole is divided into two divisions: the independent model and consolidated model. Although each model is fairly different from one another, in both models probation services are sometimes combined with parole services in a single statewide agency. Under the independent model the parole board is responsible for making release and revocation decisions, as well as supervising the parolee. Consolidated model is similar but in this type of administration the board makes release and revocation decisions and the supervision of the parolee is under the direction of different agencies. The parole board has a tremendous amount of responsibility when dealing with parolee because they have to generate public support acceptance.
Prisoners Being Released As you have seen in the recent news headlines this past week, the Justice Department, (part of the Obama Administration) will be releasing 6,000 inmates from federal prisons starting at the end of this month. It is said to be “part of new sentencing guidelines for drug crimes established last year”(“Justice Department…”). It will be “one of the largest one-time releases of federal prisoners ever”(“Justice Department…”). The main reasoning for the new guidelines regarding drug crimes and the releases is because of all the overcrowding in prisons.
Americans broken prisons as people say need to be fixed, but how. Personally, I believe the problem is the people in the prisons. Putting someone in a time out boxed is very effective for three year old, as for adults it depend on how reasonable the person is. Through my eyes, American’s prison are not as effective as they once were because we have people who go in and out of jail their whole life, people don’t care about the and lastly crazy people need to be in there for life but a released by their judgement. The first issue I will address is the fact that most people go in and out of prison for the same thing or similar crimes.
In conclusion, offenders who have been confined to prison require a little more attention in prisons than what they have been receiving. Not only will programs such as anger management, substance abuse counseling, vocational skills assist them in ways to readjust to society once they have been released but it is essential for offenders to seek some kind of aftercare program once released. Engaging is some kind of aftercare assistance upon being unconfined is important and can help revitalize ones position in society. There are a number of aftercare programs that can contribute to making the transaction an effortless one, those consist of community involvement, faith based setting, and enrolling in educational courses.
By the late nineteenth century it became clear that the ideology of penal reform that had held together the framework of the penitentiary was dissolving. Progressive reformers realized the values and strategies that once were effective in battling the tumultuous effect of urbanization, industrialization, and mass immigration to be ineffective. The theories proposed by psychologist Sigmund Freud and naturalist Charles Darwin launched a new conversation in the reform community. Reformers such as Brockway turned to this new “scientific knowledge” in order to combat the crumbling notions of reform, pushing progressive strategies to focus on the nature of the offender, rather then the offence (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010, pp.61-71).
Contradictory to what has been said, private prisons are not as safe as public prisons. Private prisons were created as a cost saving alternative, but this means the corners are being cut to provide these “savings”. Staff training at facilities are lower than the compared staff training at public facilities. Without the proper training, prison staff may not know how to properly defuse a situation or handle conflict. In turn, this can create a dangerous and deadly prison environment.
Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration–The Problem of the United States In America, the private prison industry was made for necessary profit based off of the management of prisons by large, private companies. In David Shapiro’s insightful report “Banking on Bondage”, he discusses the logistics of the United States prison system, saying “In America, our criminal justice system should keep us safe, operate fairly, and be cost-effective”. Today, the United States imprisons more people than any other nation in the world, including Russia, China, and Iran.