Trait-personality psychologists say that behavior is determined by personality traits, having same reactions to given situation overtime. So these different behaviors result different level of performance in job, career success and ultimately, there will be a difference in social status and wealth which can exasperate the social economic
Farahani (1998) believes that four principles make up the cornerstones of trait theory of personality: 1) certain definite attributes or traits make up personality. 2) These trace are general to all people with a difference in their degree and extent. 3) Traits can be measured by identifying and examining the behavior that indicates them. 4) Personality is mainly determined biologically. According to Brunas-Wagstaff (1998), trait approach to personality assumes that personality traits are
Individuals across the world use various types of personality tests to assess their levels of expertise based on several subjects of interest. The online site, The Human Metrics Jung Typology Test, has created personality test in which one is able to determine a potential career based on several multiple choice questionnaires about their personalities. The test concludes by providing four letters which symbolizes a personality trait and a suitable career for the individual. The humanistic theory of personality developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers can interconnect to the career personality test. This theory stems on the idea of self-actualization and the need to achieve one’s full potential in life after receiving their basic needs.
16 Personality Factor (16 PF) Introduction There have been different definitions of personality. According to Allport, Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought (1961). According to Eysenck, personality is influenced by a combination of genetics, biological factors and environment. Day to day when we describe peoples personalities, we refer to terms such as kind, funny, outgoing and worriers etc. these are known as trait terms and Eysenck asserts that we have some of these traits from birth.
After many decades of research on the human personality, first hypothesized by Sir Francis Galton in 1884, the five-factor personality theory was finally published by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa in 1985.33 The theory determines the most important traits in a personality from thousands of traits, and it uses the factor analysis. These factors are believed to be the core of someone’s personality and they cannot be changed during the lifespan of a person. The five traits consistently emerge from factor-analytic studies. They are: 1) Extraversion vs. Introversion: distant and shy versus friendly and conversational, 2) Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability: peaceful and secure versus nervousness and insecure, 3) Agreeableness vs. Antagonism: doubtful
The result of the 16 Personalities Test is designed somewhat closely to the five-factor model in the trait approach. Like the trait approach, the 16 Personalities Test calculates the result in five traits. However, unlike the Big Five in the trait approach which are precise and are not correlated with each other (Danielson, 2018), the five traits of the 16 Personalities Test is vague and somewhat overlap. For example, the meaning of energy trait (intuitive to observant) and the nature trait (thinking to feeling) are similar just with different worldly expression. Besides, it is hard for people to understand the exact definition of these two traits.
By personality structure trait, psychologists mean the pattern of covariation among these traits, usually summarized in terms of a relatively small number of factors that represent the basic dimensions of personality (McCrae & Costa, 1997). Today’s trait theories of personality are largely based on the work of GordenAllport, Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Allport looked at nearly 18000 dictionary terms that can be used for describing human behavior but he noticed that clusters of terms refer to the same thing. For example, hostile, nasty and mean, all convey a similar meaning. Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits (those that are usually obvious to others and that organize and control behavior in many different situations).
On the other hand, trait theory identifies the core traits that are essentially seen as preconditions that endow people with leadership potential. They include the following; 1)achievement drive which entails high level of effort, high levels of ambition, energy and initiative; 2) leadership motivation: an intense desire to lead others to reach shared goals 3) honesty and integrity: trustworthy, reliable and open; 4) self –confidence: belief in ones’ self, ideas and ability ; 4) Cognitive ability; capable of exercising good judgment, strong analytical abilities and conceptuality skills; 5) knowledge of business: knowledge of industry and other technical matters: and 6) emotional maturity: well adjusted, does not suffer from severe psychological disorders and 7)
(4)Trait Theory Trait theory, also called as dispositional theory, is an approach to the study of human personality. A trait can be explained as a characteristic that causes a person to behave in certain ways such as perceives feels, believes and also acts. Some of the personality trait used to differentiate consumer between innovators and non-innovator would be consumer innovativeness, dogmatism, social character, need for uniqueness, optimum stimulation level, sensation seeking and variety-novelty seeking (Cherry, n.d.). Consumer innovativeness is defined as the propensity of consumers to receive the new products, new services or new practices. This trait is important to both consumers and marketers as it can benefit them from right innovation