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The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Greece first began constructions in 447 BCE — a temple of Doric order with Ionic features made in dedication to Greek goddess of war, Athena. Under the influence of Pericles and the assistance of over hundreds of people, the temple was completed in 432 BCE. With an appearance similar to that of a sculpture, dimensions akin to that of the Golden Ratio, and harmonious values in its shape — it was no wonder that the Parthenon embodied many 5th century Athenian values; to achieve arete, also known as perfection. It was known that the Greeks were obsessed with the concept of the Golden Ratio, also widely known as phi, and it was no surprise that the Parthenon followed said concept, due to Phidias, a Greek sculptor,…show more content…
(Glassman, 2008). Despite the concept of perfection being a major part of Athenian culture, the columns had been placed such that there were no right angles; they all leaned inwards at about 88 degrees. The shafts were not consistently straight either — with a gradually bigger diameter of a few centimetres in the middle, it gave a visible swell to these masculine columns. The stylobate also swelled upwards, creating a bumpy flooring in the temple, allowing for rainwater to easily flow out of the Parthenon. This conjured up the optical illusion of a pyramid-like shape when one was to look up at the Parthenon from its entrance, although it was obviously a rectangular temple from afar. The temple’s pyramid-like shape would convince a worshipper that they seem smaller in proximity to the Athena Parthenos, and made the temple seem colossal compared to the other temples on the Acropolis. (Shear, 2016). Along with the Athenian’s strive for perfection of aesthetically made things, temples were mathematically correct, often going by the golden rectangle and/or the Golden Ratio. It could be said that by achieving this sense of illusion, the Parthenon now demonstrated more than just aesthetically and mathematical…show more content…
There had been the involvement of many master architects in the making of the Parthenon, cooperating with numerous amounts of people who had taken part in construction. It implied some sort of arrangement amongst the Athenians, where the community agreed to all come together as a society and built the Parthenon collectively, as a symbol of power. Metopes lined along the frieze showed an inconsistent style, hinting at the idea of community involvement with other less-known artists of Athens. (Wycherley,

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